I-Azeri

Map of the Azerbaijani language.svg

Azerbaijani noma Azeri, ebizwa nangokuthi i-Azeri Turkic noma i-Azeri Turkish, iwulimi lwesiTurkic olukhulunywa ikakhulukazi Isi-Azabaijani, abahlala ikakhulukazi eRiphabhulikhi yase-Azerbaijan lapho kukhulunywa khona izinhlobonhlobo zaseNyakatho Azerbaijani, nasesifundeni sase- Azerbaijan e-Iran, lapho kukhulunywa khona izinhlobonhlobo ze-South Azerbaijani.Nakuba kunezinga eliphezulu kakhulu lokuqondana phakathi kwazo zombili izinhlobo zesi-Azerbaijani, kunomehluko omkhulu kuphonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax kanye nemithombo yamagama emalimboleko.

I-North Azerbaijani inesikhundla esisemthethweni eRiphabhulikhi yase-Azerbaijan nase-Dagestan (isihloko sombuso waseRussia) kodwa i-South Azerbaijani ayinaso isimo esisemthethweni e- Iran, lapho iningi labantu base-Azerbaijan lihlala khona. Kuphinde kukhulunywe namazinga ahlukene amancane emiphakathini yase-Azerbaijani yaseGeorgia naseTurkey kanye nemiphakathi ehlala kwamanye amazwe, ikakhulukazi eYurophu naseNyakatho Melika.

Zombili izinhlobo zesi-Azerbaijani zingamalungu egatsha le-Oghuz lezilimi zesiTurkic.Uhlobo olujwayelekile lwesi-Azerbaijani saseNyakatho (esikhulunywa eRiphabhulikhi yase-Azerbaijan nase-Russia) lususelwe kulwimi lwesigodi lwase-Shirvani, kuyilapho i-Iranian Azerbaijani isebenzisa ulimi lwesigodi lwesi- Tabrizi njengezinhlobonhlobo zalo ezidumile.Kusukela i-Republic of Azerbaijan yakhululeka ngaphansi kweSoviet Union ngo-1991, inyakatho ye-Azerbaijani isebenzisa umbhalo wesiLatini.I-Iranian Azerbaijani ngakolunye uhlangothi ibilokhu isebenzisa futhi isaqhubeka nokusebenzisa umbhalo we- Perso-Arabic . -Azerbaijan luhlobene kakhulu ukuba Gagauz, Qashqai, Crimean Tatar, Turkish futhi Turkmen, ukwabelana ntshashintshe ka intelligibility mutual ngamunye lezo zilimi.

I-Etymology nesizindaEdit

Ngokomlando lolu limi lwalubizwa ngabantu balo bomdabu ngokuthi Türki okusho ukuthi "Turkic" noma isi- Azərbaycan türkcəsi okusho ukuthi "Azerbaijani Turkish".Ngaphambi kokusungulwa kwe- Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, eyamukela igama elithi "Azerbaijan" ngezizathu zezombangazwe ngo-1918, igama elithi "Azerbaijan" lalisetshenziselwa kuphela ukukhomba isifunda esiseduze sasenyakatho-ntshonalanga ye-Iran .Ngemva kokusungulwa kwe- Azerbaijan SSR, [1] ngomyalo womholi weSoviet u- Stalin, "igama lolimi olusemthethweni" lwe-Azerbaijan SSR "lashintshwa kusukela eTurkic kuya ku-Azerbaijani". [1]

Umlando nokuziphendukela kwemveloEdit

 
Ingadi Yezinjabulo nguFuzûlî ngesi-Azerbaijani kusukela ngekhulu le-16.

Isi-Azerbaijani savela egatsheni laseMpumalanga le- Oghuz Turkic ("Western Turkic")esasakazekela eCaucasus, eMpumalanga Yurophu,nasenyakatho ye-Iran, eNtshonalanga ye-Asia, ngesikhathi sokufuduka kweTurkic yasendulo . [2] IsiPheresiya nesi- Arabhu saba nomthelela olimini, kodwa amagama esi-Arabhu asakazwa ngokuyinhloko ngomxhumanisi wemibhalo yasePheresiya. [3]Isi-Azerbaijani, mhlawumbe silandela isi-Uzbek, ulimi lwesiTurkic isiPheresiya nezinye izilimi zase-Iranian eziye zaba nethonya elinamandla kulo—ikakhulukazi ku- phonology, syntax, nesilulumagama, kancane ku-morphology.

Ulimi lwesiTurkic lwase-Azerbaijan kancane kancane lwathatha indawo yezilimi zase-Iranian endaweni manje eyinyakatho-ntshonalanga ye-Iran, kanye nezilimi ezihlukahlukene zeCaucasus nezilimi zase-Iranian ezikhulunywa eCaucasus, ikakhulukazi isi- Udi nesi- Azeri Esidala.Ekuqaleni kwekhulu le-16, lase liwulimi oluvelele kule ndawo. Kwakuwulimi olukhulunywayo enkantolo yamaSafavids, Afsharid namaQajars.

Phakathi kuka c.Ngo-1900 nango-1930, kwakunezindlela eziningana ezincintisanayo zokuhlanganiswa kolimi lwesizwe endaweni manje eyi-Azerbaijan Republic, eyaduma izazi ezinjengoHasan bey Zardabi kanye noMmmad agha Shahtakhtinski.Ngaphandle komehluko omkhulu, wonke ayehlose ikakhulukazi ukwenza kube lula kubantu abangafundile ukufunda nokuqonda izincwadi.Bonke bakugxekile ukusetshenziswa ngokweqile kwezakhi zesiPheresiya, isi-Arabhu, nesi-Europe kokubili ngolimi lwezwi nelokubhala futhi bafuna isitayela esilula nesithandwa kakhulu.

Ukunqoba kweRussia iTranscaucasia ngekhulu le-19 kwahlukanisa umphakathi wezilimi ezifundeni ezimbili; iSoviet Union yathuthukisa ukuthuthukiswa kolimi kodwa yalubuyisela emuva kakhulu ngokushintsha kombhalo okubili okulandelanayo - kusukela kusiPheresiya kuya kusiLatini bese kuya kumbhalo wesiCyrillic - kuyilapho ama-Iranian Azerbaijani aqhubeka nokusebenzisa umbhalo wesiPheresiya njengoba ayehlale enza.Naphezu kokusetshenziswa kabanzi kwesi-Azerbaijani e- Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, yaba ulimi olusemthethweni lwase-Azerbaijan kuphela ngo-1956. [4] Ngemva kwenkululeko, iRiphabhulikhi yase-Azerbaijan yanquma ukushintshela embhalweni wesiLatini olungisiwe.

Izincwadi zesi-AzerbaijaniEdit

 
U-Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar, imbongi yase-Iranian Azerbaijani, eyabhala ngesi-Azerbaijani nesiPheresiya.

Ukuthuthukiswa kwezincwadi zesi-Azerbaijani kuhlotshaniswa eduze ne-Anatolian Turkish, ebhalwe ngombhalo we-Perso-Arabic.Izibonelo zedethi yokuqoqwa kwayo eya ekhulwini le-14 noma ngaphambili.U-Kadi Burhan al-Din, u-Hesenoghlu, no- Imadaddin Nasimi basize ekusunguleni isi-Azerbaiijani njengolimi lokubhala ngekhulu le-14 ngokusebenzisa izinkondlo neminye imisebenzi.Umbusi nembongi u- Ismail I wabhala ngaphansi kwegama elithi Khatā'ī (elisho "isoni" ngesiPheresiya ) phakathi nekhulu leshumi nanhlanu. [5] [6] Phakathi nekhulu le-16, imbongi, umbhali nomcabango uFuzûlî wabhala ikakhulukazi ngesi-Azerbaijani kodwa wabuye wahumushela izinkondlo zakhe olimini lwesi-Arabhu nesiPheresiya . [5]

U-Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar ungumuntu obalulekile ezinkondlweni zase-Azerbaijani.Umsebenzi wakhe obaluleke kakhulu u- Heydar Babaya Salam futhi uthathwa njengohamba phambili wezincwadi zesi-Azerbaijani futhi wazuza ukuthandwa emhlabeni okhuluma isiTurkic.Yahunyushelwa ezilimini ezingaphezu kuka-30.

Maphakathi nekhulu le-19, izincwadi zesi-Azerbaijani zazifundiswa ezikoleni zaseBaku, eGanja, eShaki, eTbilisi naseYerevan.Kusukela ngo-1845, iye yafundiswa naseSaint Petersburg State University eRussia.Ngo-2018, izinhlelo zolimi lwesi-Azerbaijani nezincwadi zinikezwa e-United States emanyuvesi amaningana, okuhlanganisa i- Indiana University, UCLA, kanye neNyuvesi yaseTexas e-Austin .Iningi, uma kungezona zonke izifundo zolimi lwesi-Azerbaijani ezifundisa isi-North Azerbaijani esibhalwe ngombhalo wesiLatini hhayi isi-South Azerbaijani esibhalwe ngombhalo we-Perso-Arabic.

Izincwadi zesimanje eRiphabhulikhi yase-Azerbaijan ngokuyinhloko zisekelwe olimi lwesigodi lwaseShirvani, kuyilapho esifundeni sase-Iranian Azerbaijan (i-Azerbaijan yomlando) zisekelwe kwese -Tabrizi.

  1. 1.0 1.1 . http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/azerbaijan-index. 
  2. L. Johanson, "AZERBAIJAN ix.
  3. John R. Perry, "Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic" in Csató et al. (2005) Linguistic convergence and areal diffusion: case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, Routledge, p. 97: "It is generally understood that the bulk of the Arabic vocabulary in the central, contiguous Iranic, Turkic and Indic languages was originally borrowed into literary Persian between the ninth and thirteenth centuries CE .
  4. Language Commission Suggested to Be Established in National Assembly.
  5. 5.0 5.1 G. Doerfer, "Azeri Turkish", Encyclopaedia Iranica, viii, Online Edition, p. 246.
  6. Mark R.V. Southern.