Morocco in its region (de-facto and disputed hatched).svg

IMorokho (/ məˈrɒkoʊ / (Mayelana nalesi sikhala somsindo); isi-Arabhu: المغeshe, romanised: al-maġhrib, lit. 'beka ilanga lishonile; entshonalanga'; I-standard Moroccan Tamazight: ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ, romanised: lmeɣrib; French: Maroc), ngokusemthethweni the Kingdom of Morocco (Isi-Arabhu: المملكة المغربية, romanised: al-mahloh al-maghribiyah, lit. 'The Western Kingdom'; I-standard Moroccan Tamazight: ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ, romanised: tageldit n lmaɣrib; French: Royaume du Maroc), is izwe elisesifundeni saseMaghreb eNyakatho Afrika. Ibheka uLwandle iMedithera olusenyakatho ne-Atlantic Ocean ngasentshonalanga, ngomngcele womhlaba ne-Algeria osempumalanga neNtshonalanga yeSahara eningizimu (isimo esiphikisanayo). IMorocco iphinda ithi izikhwebuki zaseCeuta, uMelilla kanye noPeñz de la Gomera, zonke zingaphansi kweSpain, kanye neziqhingi ezimbalwa ezilawulwa yiSpain ezisogwini lwaso. Inhlokodolobha yiRabat kanti idolobha elikhulu kunazo zonke yiCasablanca. IMorocco isabalalisa indawo engamakhilomitha angama-710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi) futhi inabantu abangaphezu kwezigidi ezingama

laseMorocco Ifulegi, umbala wefulegi laseMorocco, kusho ukuthini inkanyezi esefulege
Ifulegi laseMorocco

Selokhu kwasekelwa umbuso wokuqala weMorocco ngo-Idris I ngonyaka ka 788 AD, izwe selibuswa uchungechunge lwamakhosi azimele, lafinyelela ku-zenith ngaphansi kokubusa kwe-Almoravid ne-Almohad, lapho yahlukanisa izingxenye ze-Iberia kanye nenyakatho nentshonalanga ne-Afrika. Umbuso wamaPutukezi waqala eMorocco ngekhulu le-15, kulandela ukunqoba kwamaPutukezi ogwini lwaseMoroccan, wasungula izindawo ezazihlala ikhulu le-17 nele-18. Ababusi bakwaMarinid nabakwaSaadi bamelana nokubuswa kwamanye amazwe ngekhulu le-17, bavumela iMorocco ukuba ihlale ukuphela kwezwe lase-Afrika elisenyakatho-ntshonalanga ukugwema ukuhlala kwe-Ottoman. Uhlu lwamakhosi i-Alaouite, olubusa kuze kube manje, lwathatha amandla ngonyaka we-1631. Indawo yamasu wezwe eliseduze nomlomo weMedithera yaheha isasasa laseYurophu, kwathi ngo-1912, iMorocco yahlukaniswa ngabavikeli baseFrance nabaseSpain, nenkundla yamazwe omhlaba eTangier . Iphinde yathola inkululeko yayo ngonyaka we-1956, futhi kusukela manje ihlala izinzile futhi ichuma ngamazinga ezifunda, ngomnotho wesihlanu ngobukhulu e-Afrika.

IMorocco ithi insimu engazukuzibusa yeWestern Sahara, eyake yaziwa ngokuthi yiSahara yaseSpain, njengezifundazwe zayo zaseNingizimu. Ngemuva kokuba iSpain ivumile ukunquma indawo eya eMorocco naseMauritania ngo-1975, kwaqala impi yabashokobezi namabutho endawo. IMauritania yayeka isimangalo sayo ngo-1979, futhi impi yaqhubeka yaze yaqhuma ngo-1991. Okwamanje iMorocco ithatha izingxenye ezimbili kwezintathu zaleyo ndawo, futhi izinqubo zokuthula zisehlulekile wukuqeda usuku lwezepolitiki.

Umbuso wobukhosi uyinkosi ebumbene yomthethosisekelo onobunye enephalamende elikhethiwe. Izwe lisebenzisa umthelela obalulekile e-Afrika kanye nasemhlabeni wama-Arabhu, futhi libhekwa njengamandla wesifunda namandla aphakathi. INkosi yaseMorocco inamandla amakhulu okuphatha nawokushaya umthetho, ikakhulukazi ngaphezulu kwezempi, inqubomgomo yezangaphandle kanye nezindaba zenkolo. Amandla okuphatha asetshenziswa nguhulumeni, ngenkathi amandla omthetho ebekwa kuhulumeni nakuwo womabili amagumbi ePhalamende, ePhalamende Lamele Abamele kanye Nesishayamthetho Samakhansela. Inkosi ingakhipha izinqumo ezibizwa ngama-dahirs, ezinamandla omthetho. Angaphinde alichithe iphalamende ngemuva kokuxhumana noNdunankulu kanye nomongameli wenkantolo yezomthethosisekelo.

Inkolo eyayibekwe phambili eMorobhiya yi-Islam, kanti nezilimi zayo ezisemthethweni ziyi-Arabhu neBerber, okuyilona elathola ukwamukelwa ngokusemthethweni ngo-2011, bebelokhu kungolimi lomdabu lwaseMoriya ngaphambi kokunqoba kwamaSulumane ngekhulu lesikhombisa C.E. I-Spanish yaseMorike, eyabizwa ngokuthi iDarija, nesiFulentshi nayo ikhulunywa kabanzi. Isiko laseMorocco liyinhlanganisela yamaBerber, ama-Arab, amaSephardi amaJuda, amathonya aseNtshonalanga Afrika naseYurophu.

  • I-Etymology

Igama eliphelele lama-Arabhu u-al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah (الممUL. yize "iNtshonalanga" ngolimi lwesi-Arabhu ingama-الغeshe Al-Gharb. Igama futhi lingabhekisa kusihlwa. Mayelana nezinkomba zomlando, izazi-mlando zama-Arabhu nezazi zesayensi yama-medieval ngesinye isikhathi zazibiza iMorocco ngokuthi i-al-Maghrib al-Aqṣá (المغرب الأقصى, okusho ukuthi "The Farthest West") ukuyihlukanisa ezifundeni zomlando ezingomakhelwane ezibizwa nge-al-Maghrib al-Awsaṭ (المغرب الأوسط, okusho ukuthi "Middle West") kanye ne-al-Maghrib al-Adná (المغرب الأدنى, okusho ukuthi "The West Eduze").

Igama lesiNgisi laseMoriya lisuselwa eMarrakesh, inhlokodolobha yalo ngaphansi kozalo lwe-Almoravid ne-Almohad Caliphate.Imvelaphi yegama elithi Marrakesh iyaphikiswa, kepha kungenzeka ukuthi isuka kumagama ama-Berber amur (n) akush (ⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⴰⴽⵓⵛ) noma athi "Land of God". Igama lesimanje lesiBerber ngoMarrakesh yi-Mṛṛakc (embhalweni wesi-Berber Latin). ETurkey, iMorocco yaziwa ngokuthi iFas, igama elithathwe enhlokodolobha yakudala yeFes. Kodwa-ke, lokhu bekungenjalo kwezinye izingxenye zomhlaba wezwe lamaSulumane: kuze kube maphakathi nekhulu lama-20, igama elijwayelekile laseMorussia ezincwadini zama-Arabhu zaseGibhithe naseMiddle East kwakunguMarrakesh (مراكش); [kucashunwa edingekayo] leli gama lisasetshenziswa kwezinye izilimi ezifana nesiPersian, isi-Urdu nesiPunjabi. Igama lesiNgisi elithi Mororome lingumqondo wobukhosi baseSpain "Marruecos", lapho kutholakala khona neTuscan "Morrocco", imvelaphi yase-Italy "Marocco".

  • umlando

Indawo yaseMorocco yanamuhla ibakhiwe kusukela ngezikhathi zePaleolithic, ngesinye isikhathi phakathi kuka-190,000 no-90,000 BC. Ukushicilelwa kwakamuva kungakhombisa isikhathi sokuqala ukwakhiwa, njengoba amafulege weHomo sapiens athola ngasekupheleni kuka-2000 ngasogwini lwe-Atlantic eJebel Irhoud asanda kwenziwa cishe iminyaka engama-315,000 ngaphambi kwamanje. Ngesikhathi se-Upper Paleolithic, iMaghreb yayivundile kunaku namuhla, ifana ne-savanna ngaphezu kwendawo yanamuhla eyomile. Eminyakeni eyizinkulungwane ezingamashumi amabili nambili edlule, i-Aterian yathathelwa indawo yisiko lama-Iberomaurusian, elabelana ngokufana namasiko ama-Iberia. Kufana nokuthi kufakwe phakathi kwe-Skeletal phakathi kokungcwatshwa kuka-Iberomaurusian "Mechta-Afalou" ne-European Cro-Magnon esele. I-Iberomaurusian yathathelwa indawo yisiko likaBeaker eMorocco.

Ucwaningo lweMitochondrial DNA seluthole ukuxhumana okusondelene phakathi kweBerber neSaami yaseScandinavia. Lokhu kusekela imibono yokuthi indawo yokuphephela yaseFranco-Cantabrian eningizimu-ntshonalanga Yurophu ibingumthombo wokuchazeka kwesikhathi eside kwabacwasi abazingeli abaphinde benyuse i-Europe esenyakatho emva kwenkathi yokugcina yeqhwa.

INyakatho-ntshonalanga ye-Afrika neMorocco yaholwa kancane kancane yangena ezweni laseMedithera elibanzi abasubathi baseFenike, ababesungula izindawo zokuhweba nezindawo zokuhlala ngesikhathi sokuqala Classical. Izindawo zokuhlala abaseFenike ezinkulu zaziseChellah, eLixus naseMogador. IMogador yayiyikoloni lamaFenikeya ekuqaleni kwekhulu le-6 leminyaka BC. [ikhasi elidingekayo]

Amanxiwa aseBerber aseVolubilis.

IMorocco yabuye yaba indawo yezempucuko zasenyakatho-ntshonalanga ne-Afrika yeCarthage yasendulo njengengxenye yombuso wayo. Umbuso wokuqala wokuqala owaziwa ngokuzimela weMorocco wawungumbuso waseBerber waseMauretania ngaphansi kwenkosi uBaga. Lo mbuso wasendulo (hhayi ukuthi ungadidaniswa nesimo samanje seMauritania) waqala cishe kwaba ngu-225 BC.

UMauretania waba umbuso wamakhasimende oMbuso WaseRoma ngo-33 BC. UMbusi uClaudius walengisa iMauretania ngqo njengesifundazwe saseRoma ngonyaka ka-44 AD, ngaphansi kombusi wombusi (kungaba undunankulu u-Augusti, noma i-legatus Augusti pro praetore).

Ngesikhathi senhlupheko yekhulu lesi-3, izingxenye zaseMauretania zaphinde zakhiwa yizizwe zakwaBerber. Ukubusa okuqondile kwamaRoma kwavalelwa emadolobheni ambalwa asogwini, njenge-Sepum (Ceuta) eMauretania Tingitana neCherchell eMauretania Cesariensis, ngasekupheleni kwekhulu lesithathu. UMbuso WaseRoma ulahlekelwe yizinto zawo ezazisele eMauretania ngemuva kokuba le ndawo ichithwe yiVandals ngo-AD 429. Ngemuva kwaleli phuzu, amakhosi endawo aseMauro-amaRoma aqala ukulawula (bona umbuso kaMauro-wamaRoma). UMbuso WaseRoma WaseMpumalanga ngaphansi kokulawulwa yiByzantine waphinda wamisa ukubusa okuqondile kombuso kweSepum noTingi ngeminyaka engama-530. UTingis waqiniswa futhi kwakhiwa isonto.

  • Geography

enyakatho (umngcele wamanzi enqamula eStrait nemingcele yomhlaba enezicaba ezintathu ezincane ezilawulwa yiSpain, uCeuta, uMelilla, kanye noPeñon de Vélez de la Gomera), i-Algeria empumalanga, kanye neNtshonalanga yeSahara eningizimu. Njengoba iMorocco ilawula iningi leSahara eseNtshonalanga, umngcele wayo oseningizimu ne-Mauritania.

Imingcele yezwe ehlonishwa umhlaba wonke iphakathi kokutholakala kwama-27 ° no-36 ° N, kanye nobude obungu-1 no-14 ° W. Ukungezelela i-Western Sahara, iMorocco ilala phakathi kwama-21 ° kanye nama-36 ° N, kanye no-1 ° no-17 ° W (iphenathi leRas Nouadhibou liseningizimu ne-21 ° kanye ntshonalanga ne-17 °).

Ukuma komhlaba kweMorocco kusukela eLwandlekazi lwe-Atlantic, kuya ezintabeni, kuya ogwadule lwaseSahara. IMorobha iyizwe laseNyakatho Afrika, enqenqemeni lweNyakatho ye-Atlantic Ocean nolwandle iMedithera, phakathi kwe-Algeria neNtshonalanga yeSahara. Ingenye yezizwe ezintathu kuphela (kanye neSpain neFrance) ukuba nazo zombili izindawo ezisogwini lwe-Atlantic nolweMedithera.

Ingxenye enkulu yeMorocco inezintaba. Izintaba ze-Atlas zitholakala ikakhulu enkabeni naseningizimu yezwe. Izintaba zeRif zitholakala enyakatho yezwe. Womabili la mabanga ahlalwa ikakhulukazi ngabantu beBerber. Ku-446,550 km2 (172,414 sq mi), iMorobha ngaphandle kweSahara eseNtshonalanga iyizwe elikhulukazi ngamashumi amahlanu nesikhombisa emhlabeni. I-Algeria ihlanganisa iMorocco ngasempumalanga nasempumalanga eseningizimu, yize umngcele phakathi kwala mazwe amabili uvaliwe kusukela ngo-1994.

Indawo yaseSpain eNyakatho-ntshonalanga ye-Afrika engomakhelwane iMorocco inezindawo ezinhlanu ezigudle ugu lwaseMedithera: iCeuta, iMelilla, iPeñon de Vélez de la Gomera, i-Peñón de Alhucemas, iziqhingi zaseChafarinas kanye nesiqhingi esiphikisayo iPerejil. Ngasogwini lwe-Atlantic iziqhingi zaseCanary zingeSpain, kanti uM Madeira ngasenyakatho uyiPutukezi. Ngasenyakatho, iMorobha ihlukaniswe yi-Strait of Gibraltar, lapho ukuthunyelwa kwamazwe omhlaba kuye kwangaphumeleli khona lapho kudlula phakathi kwe-Atlantic neMedithera.

Izintaba zeRif zeluka esifundeni esisemngceleni weMedithera kusuka enyakatho-nentshonalanga kuye enyakatho-empumalanga. Izintaba ze-Atlas zehla ngomgogodla wezwe, ukusuka enyakatho-mpumalanga kuye eningizimu-ntshonalanga. Iningi lengxenye eseningizimu mpumalanga yezwe isehlane laseSahara futhi ngenxa yalokho imvamisa inabantu abaningi futhi abakhiqizi ngokwezomnotho. Iningi labantu lihlala enyakatho yalezi zintaba, kanti ngaseningizimu kukhona iNtshonalanga yeSahara, ikoloni langaphambili laseSpain elamiswa i-Morocco ngo-1975 (bona i-Green March). IMorocco ithi iNtshonalanga Sahara iyingxenye yendawo yayo futhi ibiza lokho njengezifundazwe zayo zaseNingizimu.