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Imfundo inqubo lula yokufunda. Ulwazi, amakhono, amagugu, izinkolelo, nemikhuba iqembu labantu zidluliselwa abanye abantu, ngokusebenzisa storytelling, ingxoxo, ukufundisa, ukuqeqesha, noma ucwaningo.

Imfundo njalo senzeka ngaphansi kokuqondisa kothisha, kodwa abafundi futhi kungenzeka bazifundise kukambiso ebizwa yokufunda autodidactic. Noma isiphi isenzakalo ukuthi kunomphumela okwakhayo endleleni eyodwa acabanga, azizwa, noma izenzo kungacatshangwa zemfundo.

EtymologyUkuhlela

Ngokomqondo, igama elithi "imfundo" lisuselwa egameni lesiLatini elithi ēducātiō ("Ukuzalela, ukukhulisa, ukukhulisa") ku-ēducō ("Ngifundisa, ngiziqeqesha") okuhlobene negama eliyisiqalo ēdūcō ("ngiyahola , Ngiyakhipha; ngiyakhuphuka, ngiyakhuphuka ") ku-ē- (" kusuka, kuphume ") naku-dūcō (" Ngiyahola, ngiyaphatha ").[1]

UmlandoUkuhlela

Imfundo yaqala ngokubekwa phambili, njengoba abantu abadala babeqeqesha abasha ngolwazi namakhono abonwa efanelekile emphakathini wabo. Emiphakathini yangaphambi kokufunda, lokhu kutholwe ngomlomo nangokulingiswa. Ulwazi olwedlulisa izindaba, amanani, kanye namakhono kusuka kwesinye isizukulwane kuye kwesinye. Njengoba amasiko aqala ukunweba ulwazi lwawo ngaphezu kwamakhono angafundwa kalula ngokulingisa, kwasungulwa imfundo ehlelekile. Izikole zazikhona eGibhithe ngesikhathi soMbuso WaseMiddle East.

UMatteo Ricci (kwesobunxele) noXu Guangqi (kwesokudla) kuhlobo lwesiShayina lwe-Euclid's Elements olushicilelwe ngo-1607

UPlato wasungula i-Academy e-Athene, isikhungo sokuqala semfundo ephakeme eYurophu. Umuzi wase-Alexandria eGibhithe, owasungulwa ngonyaka ka-330 BCE, waba owalandela esikhundleni se-Athene njengomfundi wokufundisa weGrisi yasendulo. Lapho, iLabhulali enkulu yase-Alexandria yakhiwa ngekhulu lesi-3 BCE. Izimpucuko zaseYurophu zathola ukuwohloka kokufunda nokubhala kwenhlangano ngemuva kokuwa kweRoma ngo-CE 476.

E-China, uConfucius (551-479 BCE), weSifundazwe saseLu, wayeyisazi sefilosofi sasendulo esinamandla kunazo zonke ezweni, esinombono wezemfundo oqhubeka nomthelela emiphakathini yaseChina nomakhelwane abanjengoKorea, Japan, neVietnam. UConfucius waqoqa abafundi futhi wafuna ngeze umbusi owayezosebenzisa izinhloso zakhe zokuphatha kahle, kepha ama-Analelect akhe abhalwa phansi abalandeli futhi baqhubeka nomthelela kwezemfundo e-East Asia enkathini yesimanje. [2]

Ama-Aztec futhi abenomqondo othuthuke kahle mayelana nemfundo, enegama elifanayo esiNahuatl elibizwa ngokuthi yi-tlacahuapahualiztli. Kusho "ubuciko bokukhulisa noma ukufundisa umuntu" [3] noma "ubuciko bokuthi baqinise noma bakhulise amadoda." [4] Lokhu bekungumbono obanzi wemfundo, onqume ukuthi iqale ekhaya, ixhaswe yisikole esisemthethweni , futhi kuqiniswe ngokuphila komphakathi. Izazi-mlando zithi imfundo ehlelekile yayiyimpoqo yawo wonke umuntu kungakhathalekile ukuthi ngubani osezingeni lomphakathi kanye nobulili. [5] Kwakukhona negama elithi neixtlamachiliztli, elithi "isenzo sokunika ukuhlakanipha kobuso." Le micabango igcizelela isethi eyinkimbinkimbi yemikhuba yemfundo, eyayiqondiswe ekwaziseni isizukulwane esilandelayo isipiliyoni namagugu obuhlakani besikhathi esedlule ngenhloso yokuthuthuka komuntu ngamunye kanye nokuhlanganiswa kwakhe nomphakathi.

Ngemuva kokuwa kweRome, iSonto lamaKhatholika laba ukuphela komgcini wezifundo zokufunda nokubhala eNtshonalanga Yurophu. [6] Isonto lisungule izikole zesonto lama-Old Age Ages njengezikhungo zemfundo ephakeme. Okunye kwalokhu kusungulwa kwagcina kwenziwa kumayunivesithi aphakathi nongokhokho bamanyuvesi amaningi anamuhla aseYurophu.[7] Ngesikhathi seNkathi eNkulu yokuPhakathi, iChartres Cathedral yayisebenzisa iSikole samaKhatholika esidumile nesinethonya. Amanyuvesi aphakathi kweLobukholwa laseNtshonalanga ahlanganiswe kahle kulo lonke elaseNtshonalanga Yurophu, akhuthaza inkululeko yokubuza imibuzo, futhi akhiqiza izifundiswa ezahlukahlukene nezazi zefilosofi zemvelo, kubandakanya uThomas Aquinas waseNyuvesi yaseNaples, uRobert Grosseteste waseNyuvesi yase-Oxford, umdaluli wokuqala wendlela ehlelekile yokuhlolwa kwesayensi, [8] noSanta Albert the Great, iphayona locwaningo lwebhayoloji yemvelo. [9] Yasungulwa ngonyaka we-1088, i-University of Bologne ibhekwa njengeyokuqala, kanti neyunivesithi yakudala esebenza njalo. [10]

Kwenye indawo phakathi neNkathi Ephakathi, isayensi yamaSulumane nemathematics kukhula ngaphansi kwe-Islamic caliphate eyasungulwa ngaphesheya kwe-Middle East, isuka e-Iberian Peninsula entshonalanga kuya e-Indus empumalanga kuya eMbusweni we-Almoravid naseMalanda eningizimu.

I-Renaissance eYurophu yaqala inkathi entsha yokubuza kwesayensi neyengqondo nokwazisa kwempucuko yasendulo yamaGrikhi neyaseRoma. Cishe ngo-1450, uJohannes Gutenberg wasungula umshini wokunyathelisa, owawuvumela ukuba izincwadi zezincwadi zisakaze ngokushesha. I-European Age of Empires yabona imibono yaseYurophu yemfundo ngefilosofi, inkolo, ubuciko kanye nesayensi yasakazeka emhlabeni wonke. Izithunywa zevangeli nezazi zibuye nemibono emisha evela kwezinye izimpucuko - njengamaHulumeni amaJesuit China abambe iqhaza elikhulu ekusatshalalisweni kolwazi, isayensi, kanye namasiko phakathi kweChina neYurophu, ukuhumusha imisebenzi isuka eYurophu efana ne-Euclid's Elements yabafundi base China kanye imicabango yeConfucius yezethameli zaseYurophu. Ukukhanyiselwa kwabona ukuvela komqondo wokufunda wezwe ovela eYurophu.

Emazweni amaningi namuhla, imfundo yesikhathi esigcwele, kungaba sesikoleni noma ngenye indlela, iyimpoqo kubo bonke abantwana kuze kube iminyaka ethile. Ngenxa yalokhu ukwanda kwemfundo ephoqelekile, kuhlanganiswe nokwanda kwesibalo sabantu, i-UNESCO ibala ukuthi eminyakeni engama-30 ezayo abantu abaningi bazothola imfundo ehlelekile kunawo wonke umlando wesintu kuze kube manje. [11]

ReferencesUkuhlela

  1. educate. Etymonline.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-21.
  2. "Why Is Confucius Still Relevant Today? His Sound Bites Hold Up". 2015-03-25. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/03/150325-confucius-china-asia-philosophy-communist-party-ngbooktalk/. 
  3. Colin, Ernesto (2014). Indigenous Education through Dance and Ceremony: A Mexica Palimpsest. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 65. ISBN 978-1-349-47094-5. 
  4. León-Portilla, Miguel (2012). Aztec Thought and Culture: A Study of the Ancient Nahuatl Mind. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 134–35. ISBN 978-0-8061-0569-7. 
  5. Reagan, Timothy (2005). Non-Western Educational Traditions: Alternative Approaches to Educational Thought and Practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. pp. 108. ISBN 978-0-8058-4857-1. 
  6. "Science owes much to both Christianity and the Middle Ages : Soapbox Science" (in en-US). http://blogs.nature.com/soapboxscience/2011/05/18/science-owes-much-to-both-christianity-and-the-middle-ages. 
  7. "Distance Learning". https://www.ignouhub.in. Retrieved 2019-11-17. 
  8. "Robert Grosseteste". Catholic Encyclopedia. Newadvent.org. 1 June 1910. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07037a.htm. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  9. "St. Albertus Magnus". Catholic Encyclopedia. Newadvent.org. 1 March 1907. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01264a.htm. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  10. Nuria Sanz, Sjur Bergan: "The heritage of European universities", 2nd edition, Higher Education Series No. 7, Council of Europe, 2006, ISBN, p. 136
  11. Robinson, K.: Schools Kill Creativity. TED Talks, 2006, Monterey, CA, US.