Isidakamizwa

ikhemikhali enomthelela emzimbeni womuntu

Isidakamizwa yinoma iyiphi into yamakhemikhali edala ushintsho kokuphilayo komzimba noma kwengqondo lapho idliwe. [1]Izidakamizwa zivame ukuhlukaniswa nokudla nezinto ezinikeza ukwesekwa kokudla okunempilo. Ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa kungaba nge- inhalation, umjovo, ukubhema, ukungenisa, ukumunca ngesiqeshana esikhunjeni, i- suppository, noma ukuncibilika ngaphansi kolimi.

I-caffeine, equkethwe yikhofi nezinye iziphuzo, iyisidakamizwa esisetshenziswa kakhulu se-psychoactive emhlabeni.90% abantu abadala baseNyakatho Melika basebenzisa le nto nsuku zonke.
Uncoated aspirin amaphilisi, ehlanganisa mayelana 90% acetylsalicylic acid, kanye lemali ezincane fillers inert futhi binders. I-Aspirin yisidakamizwa esenziwa ngemithi esivame ukusetshenziselwa ukwelapha ubuhlungu, umkhuhlane nokuvuvukala .

Kwi- pharmacology, umuthi uyisithako samakhemikhali, uqobo esakheke esaziwayo, okuthi, uma sinikezwa into ephilayo, siveze umphumela webhayoloji.Umuthi owenza imithi, obizwa nangokuthi umuthi noma umuthi, uyinto yamakhemikhali esetshenziselwa ukwelapha, ukwelapha, ukuvimbela noma ukuxilonga isifo noma ukuthuthukisa inhlalakahle . [1]Ngokwesiko izidakamizwa zitholwe ngokukhishwa ezitshalweni zokwelapha, kepha muva nje futhi ngokuhlanganiswa kwezinto eziphilayo . [2]Izidakamizwa ezithaka imithi zingasetshenziswa isikhathi esilinganiselwe, noma njalo ngezifo ezingalapheki.

I-EtymologyEdit

EsiNgisini, ibizo "umuthi" kucatshangwa ukuthi livela ku-Old French "drogue", okungenzeka ukuthi litholakala kwelithi "droge (vate)" elisuka ku-Middle Dutch elisho ukuthi "eyomile (imigqomo)", ebhekisa ezitshalweni zokwelapha ezigcinwe njengezomile emigqonyeni. [3]

ImithiEdit

 
I-Nexium (Esomeprazole) iyisithibisi se- proton-pump inhibitor . Isetshenziselwa ukunciphisa ukukhiqizwa kwesisu esiswini.

Umuthi noma imithi kuyinto izidakamizwa kuthathwe ukwelapha noma ukunciphisa noma yiziphi izinkomba ezisheshe i ukugula noma isimo sezokwelapha.Ukusetshenziswa futhi kungaba njengomuthi wokuvikela onezinzuzo zesikhathi esizayo kepha ongaziphathi izifo noma izimpawu ezivele zikhona noma zivele zikhona.Ukudlulisela imithi ngokuvamile kulawulwa ohulumeni ku ezintathu categories- phezu-the-counter imithi, olutholakalayo Pharmacy kanye nezitolo ezinkulu ngaphandle kwemingcele ekhethekile; ngemuva-the-counter nemithi, okuyinto okukhishwa ngumuntu wemithi ngaphandle kokudinga somuthi nokusetshenziswa kwawo sikadokotela, futhi kadokotela kuphela imithi, okuyinto okumele lunqunywe ngumuntu ilayisensi kudokotela, ngokuvamile udokotela.

E-United Kingdom, imishanguzo engemuva kwekhawunta ibizwa ngokuthi yimithi ekhemisi engathengiswa kuphela emakhemisi abhalisiwe, ngaphansi noma ngaphansi kweso likasokhemisi.Le mithi iqokwa ngohlamvu P kwilebula.Ububanzi bemithi etholakala ngaphandle kwencwadi kadokotela buyehluka kuye ngezwe.Imithi ijwayele ukukhiqizwa yizinkampani ezenza imithi futhi ivame ukuba nobunikazi bokunikeza unjiniyela amalungelo akhethekile okuyikhiqiza.Lokho okungenalo ilungelo lobunikazi (noma obunamalungelo obunikazi aphelelwe yisikhathi) kubizwa ngokuthi yimithi ejwayelekile ngoba ingakhiqizwa ezinye izinkampani ngaphandle kwemingcele noma amalayisense avela kumnikazi welungelo lobunikazi.

Ukusetshenziswa ngokomoya nangokwenkoloEdit

 
Inyanga
 
Ipsychoactive cactus.

Ezinye izinkolo, ikakhulukazi izinkolo zobuzwe, zisekelwe ngokuphelele ekusetshenzisweni kwemithi ethile, eyaziwa ngokuthi i- entheogens, okuyizinto ikakhulukazi ama- hallucinogens, - ama- psychedelics, ama- dissociatives, noma ama- deliriants .Eminye imithi esetshenziswa njengoba entheogens zihlanganisa kava okuyinto ingaba njengesihluthulelo ivuselela, a sine, a euphoriant futhi izinzwa.Izimpande zesitshalo se-kava zisetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza isiphuzo esidliwa kuwo wonke amasiko oLwandlekazi iPacific.

Amanye ama-shaman avela kumasiko ehlukene asebenzisa ama-entheogens, achazwa ngokuthi "ukudala oNkulunkulu ngaphakathi" [4] ukufeza injabulo yenkolo .Ama-shaman ase-Amazonia asebenzisa i- ayahuasca (yagé) i-hallucinogenic brew ngale njongo.Izazi zakwaMazatec zinenkambiso ende futhi eqhubekayo yokusetshenziswa kwenkolo kaSalvia divinorum isitshalo esisebenza ngokwengqondo.Ukusetshenziswa kwayo ukwenza lula izimo zombono wokuqonda ngesikhathi sokuphulukiswa ngokomoya. [5]

I-Silene undulata ithathwa ngabantu abangamaXhosa njengesitshalo esingcwele futhi isetshenziswa njenge-entheogen.Izimpande zawo ngokwesiko zisetshenziselwa ukwenza amaphupho acacile (futhi ngokusho kwesiXhosa, isiprofetho) ngesikhathi sokuqalisa kwamaShaman , ebeka i-oneirogen eyenzeka ngokwemvelo efana nomuthi owaziwa kakhulu wamaphupho uCalea ternifolia . [6]

I-Peyote i-cactus encane engenayo i-cactus ibe ngumthombo omkhulu we-psychedelic mescaline futhi mhlawumbe isetshenziswe ngabantu baseMelika okungenani iminyaka eyizinkulungwane ezinhlanu. [7]Iningi le-mescaline manje selitholakala ezinhlotsheni ezimbalwa ze-columnar cacti ikakhulukazi kusuka eSan Pedro hhayi kwi-peyote esengozini.

Ukusetshenziswa kwe- insheogenic yensangu nakho bekusetshenziswa kabanzi [8] amakhulu eminyaka.Rastafari ukusetshenziswa insangu (Ganja) njengoba isakramente e zabo emikhosini yenkolo .

Amakhowe e-Psychedelic (ama- psilocybin mushroom ), abizwa kakhulu ngokuthi amakhowe omlingo noma ama- shrooms nawo asetshenziswa kudala njenge-entheogens.

Izidakamizwa ezihlakaniphile nezidakamizwa zomklamiEdit

AmaNootropics, abuye abizwe ngokujwayelekile ngokuthi "izidakamizwa ezihlakaniphile", yizidakamizwa okuthiwa zithuthukisa amakhono abantu okuqonda. Ama-nootropics asetshenziselwa ukuthuthukisa inkumbulo, ukugxila, ukucabanga, imizwa, nokufunda.I-nootropic esetshenziswa ngokuqhubekayo phakathi kwabafundi, eyaziwa nangokuthi umuthi wokutadisha, i- methylphenidate ebizwa ngokuthi i- Ritalin futhi isetshenziselwa ukwelashwa kokushoda kokunakwa kwe-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) kanye ne- narcolepsy . [9]Emithamo ephezulu i-methylphenidate ingaba umlutha kakhulu . [10]Ukulutha ngokweqile kungaholela ekuphazamisekeni kwengqondo, ukukhathazeka nezinkinga zenhliziyo, futhi ukusetshenziswa kwalesi sidakamizwa kuhlobene nokwanda kokuzibulala, nokudlula ngokweqile.Ubufakazi bokusetshenziswa ngaphandle kwezilungiselelo zabafundi bunqunyelwe kepha buveza ukuthi kuvamile. [9] [10]Ukusetshenziswa okufakwayo kwe-methylphenidate kungaholela ekulimaleni kwemiphunga emaphashini, okwaziwa ngokuthi yiRitalin lung.

Ezinye izidakamizwa ezaziwa ngokuthi yimiklami yezidakamizwa ziyakhiqizwa. Isibonelo sokuqala salokho namuhla okungabizwa ngokuthi 'isidakamizwa esingumklami' kwakuyi- LSD, eyayihlanganiswa ne- ergot.Ezinye izibonelo zifaka ama-analogs ezidakamizwa ezisebenza ezinjenge-designer steroids ezithathwe ukuthuthukisa amandla omzimba futhi kwesinye isikhathi zisetshenziselwa (ngokusemthethweni noma cha) ngale njongo, imvamisa ngabadlali abangochwepheshe. [11]Ezinye izidakamizwa eziklama zilingisa imiphumela yezidakamizwa ezisebenza ngengqondo.Kusukela ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1990 kuye kwaba nokuhlonza eziningi zalezi zidakamizwa ezihlanganisiwe.EJapan nase-United Kingdom lokhu kukhuthaze ukwengezwa kwezidakamizwa eziningi zabaqambi ekilasini elisha lezinto ezilawulwayo ezaziwa njengomuthi wesikhashana wesigaba .

Ama-cannabinoids okwenziwa akhiqizwe isikhathi eside futhi asetshenziselwa i- cannabis yokwenziwa komuthi wezidakamizwa.

Ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa zokuzijabulisaEdit

 
I-Cannabis isidakamizwa esivame ukusetshenziswa kwezokungcebeleka.

Ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa zokuzijabulisa ukusetshenziswa kwesidakamizwa (esisemthethweni, esilawulwayo, noma esingekho emthethweni) ngenhloso yokuqala yokuguqula isimo sokwazi ngokushintsha kwesistimu yezinzwa emaphakathi ukuze kudaleke imizwa nemizwa emihle.I-hallucinogen LSD iyisidakamizwa esisebenza ngengqondo esivame ukusetshenziswa njengesidakamizwa sokuzithokozisa.

Eminye imithetho kazwelonke iyakwenqabela ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa ezehlukene zokuzijabulisa; nemithi yokwelapha enekhono lokusebenzisa ezokungcebeleka ivame ukulawulwa kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, kunezidakamizwa eziningi zokuzijabulisa ezisemthethweni ezindaweni eziningi futhi zamukelwa kabanzi ngokwamasiko. I-Cannabis yisidakamizwa sokuzilibazisa esilawulwa kakhulu emhlabeni (kusukela ngo-2012).Ukusetshenziswa kwayo emazweni amaningi akukho emthethweni kepha kusetshenziswa ngokusemthethweni emazweni amaningana imvamisa ngombandela wokuthi ingasetshenziselwa ukuzisebenzisela wena kuphela.Kungaba olusetshenziswe ifomu iqabunga insangu (utshani), noma ngesimo resin ka insangu.Insangu yindlela emnene yensangu kune-hashish.

Kungabakhona umkhawulo weminyaka ekusetshenzisweni nasekuthengweni kwezidakamizwa zokuzijabulisa ezisemthethweni.Eminye imishanguzo yokuzijabulisa esemthethweni neyamukelwa ezindaweni eziningi ifaka phakathi utshwala, ugwayi, i- betel nut, nemikhiqizo ye-caffeine, kanti kwezinye izindawo emhlabeni ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa okufana ne- khat kuvamile. [12]

Kunezidakwa eziningana zomthetho ezivame ukubizwa ngokuthi ukuphakama kwezomthetho okusetshenziselwa ukuzijabulisa.Okusetshenziswa kakhulu kulezi utshwala.

Ukuphathwa kwezidakamizwaEdit

  Yonke imishanguzo, ingalawulwa ngemizila eminingi, futhi eminingi ingalawulwa ngaphezulu kweyodwa

Ukulawulwa kwezidakamizwaEdit

Kunamahhovisi amaningi kahulumeni emazweni amaningi abhekene nokulawulwa nokwenganyelwa kokwenziwa nokusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa, kanye nokuqaliswa kwemithetho ehlukahlukene yezidakamizwa.I- Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs yisivumelwano samazwe omhlaba esenziwa ngo-1961 ukwenqabela ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa okonga labo abasetshenziselwa ucwaningo lwezokwelapha kanye nokwelashwa.Ngo-1971, kwenziwa isivumelwano sesibili i- Convention on Psychotropic Substances okwakumele yethulwe ukubhekana nezidakamizwa ezintsha zokuzithokozisa ezithaka ingqondo nezingama-psychedelic.

Isimo esisemthethweni seSalvia divinorum siyahluka emazweni amaningi ngisho nasezifundazweni ezise-United States.Lapho kusemthethweni khona ngokumelene nezinga lokwenqatshelwa nakho kuyehluka.

I -Food and Drug Administration (FDA) e-United States kuyinto ejensi kahulumeni obhekene ukuvikela kanye nasekugqugquzeleni lwezempilo lukahulumeni ngokusebenzisa isiqondiso nokugada ukuphepha kokudla, imikhiqizo kagwayi, Izithako zokudla, imithi kanye phezu-the-counter imithi, imithi yokugoma, biopharmaceuticals, ukumpontshelwa igazi, imishini yokwelapha , imishini ekhipha imisebe kagesi, izimonyo, ukudla kwezilwane nemithi yezilwane .

ENdiya, iNarcotics Control Bureau (abbr. NCB ), i- Indian federal law enforcement and intelligence agency ngaphansi koMnyango Wezasekhaya, uHulumeni wase-India ubhekene nomsebenzi wokulwa nokushushumbiswa kwezidakamizwa nokusiza ukusetshenziswa kwamazwe omhlaba ngezinto ezingekho emthethweni ngaphansi kwemibandela yoMthetho Wezidakamizwa Nezidakamizwa Ze-Psychotropic Act .

Uhlu lwezidakamizwaEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 . http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/drug.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "diccom" defined multiple times with different content
  2. "Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review". Biotechnol Adv 33 (8): 1582–614. December 2015. doi:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.08.001. PMC Template:=pmcentrez&artidTemplate:=4748402 4748402. PMID 26281720. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4748402. 
  3. Tupper KW (2012). "Psychoactive substances and the English language: "Drugs," discourses, and public policy.". Contemporary Drug Problems 39 (3): 461–492. doi:10.1177/009145091203900306. 
  4. Entheogen 
  5. Valdés, Díaz & Paul 1983, p. 287.
  6. "Psychoactive Spiritual Medicines and Healing Dynamics in the Initiation Process of Southern Bantu Diviners". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44 (3): 216–223. July 2012. doi:10.1080/02791072.2012.703101. PMID 23061321. 
  7. "Prehistoric peyote use: alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas". J Ethnopharmacol 101 (1–3): 238–42. October 2005. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.04.022. 
  8. Jurema-Preta (Mimosa tenuiflora [Willd.] Poir.): a review of its traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Mitigating risks of students use of study drugs through understanding motivations for use and applying harm reduction theory: a literature review. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Are prescription stimulants "smart pills"? The epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience of prescription stimulant use by normal healthy individuals.. 
  11. "Impact of the emergence of designer drugs upon sports doping testing". Bioanalysis 4 (1): 71–88. doi:10.4155/bio.11.291. PMID 22191595. 
  12. Al-Mugahed (2008). Khat Chewing in Yemen: Turning over a New Leaf: Khat Chewing Is on the Rise in Yemen, Raising Concerns about the Health and Social Consequences.