Minister of Home Affairs v Fourie

Ungqongqoshe Wezasekhaya kanye nelinye v Fourie nelinye; I-Lesbi ne-Gay Equity Project kanye nabanye v nguNgqongqoshe Wezasekhaya nabanye, [2005] ZACC 19,[1][2] [3], yisinqumo esiyingqayizivele seNkantoloYoMthethosisekelo waseNingizimu Afrika lapho inkantolo ikhiphe isinqumo sayo ngaso leso sikhathi Imibhangqwana engashadanga inelungelo lomthethosisekelo lokushada . Isinqumo lesi, esalotshwa nguJustice Albie Sachs futhi sathunyelwa ngomhlaka 1 Disemba 2005, sanikeza iPhalamende unyaka owodwa ukuthi liphasise umthetho odingekayo. Ngenxa yalokhu,umthetho wezinyunyana waqala ukusebenza ngomhlaka 30 Novemba 2006, wenza iNingizimu Afrika yaba yizwe lesihlanu emhlabeni ukuqaphela umshado wobungqingili .

Icala laqulwa ngoMeyi 17, 2005, yiLanga ACJ, uMadala J,YvonneMokgoro , Moseneke J, Ngcobo J, O'Regan J, Albie Sachs , Skweyiya J, UZak Yacoob J noVan Der Westhuizen J. AbakwaMTK Moerane SC (beno-S. Nthai) babonakele abafaka izicelo, uP Postostost (kanye no-T Kathri) kwabaphendulile, uJJ Smyth QC we- amici curiae wokuqala nowesibili, uGC Pretorius SC (no-DM Achtzehn, PG Seleka noJR Bauer) okwesithathu kwe- amicus curiae, i-DI Berger SC (enoF Kathree) kwabafakizicelo, kanye no-M Donen SC wabaphenduli. Odabeni lukaFourie, izeluleko zabafakizicelo bezifundiswe ngummeli wombuso, kanye nabamangalelwa nguMnu van den Berg. I- amince curiae yesithathu yafundiswa uMotla Conradie. Odabeni lweLesbian ne-Gay Equity Project, izeluleko zabafakizicelo bezifundiswe nguNicholl, Cambanis & Associates, kanye nabaphenduli 'ngommeli kahulumeni.

Leli cala elithinta izicelo zekhefu lokufaka isicelo sokudlulisa icala nokudlulisa isinqumo esiphikisana nesinqumo seNkantolo Ephakeme Yokudluliswa Kwamacala (Icala leFourie) elihambisana nesicelo sokufinyelela ngqo kwiNkantolo Yomthethosisekelo (icala leLesbian and Gay Equity Project ).

Isizinda sezomthethoUkuhlela

Ukuchazwa komshado emthethweni ojwayelekile waseNingizimu Afrika kuthathwe umthetho wamaRom-Datch, futhi kuze kube yilapho icala likaFourie lichazwa ngokuthi "ukubumbana kwendoda eyodwa nowesifazane oyedwa, ukubekelwa eceleni, ngenkathi kuqhubeka, kubo bonke abanye". [4] Le ncazelo ayizibandakanyi izinyunyana zabobulili obuhlukile; iphinde yahlukanisa inyunyana yesithembu noma yesithembu efana umshado wamaSulumane nemishado ngaphansi Umthetho wamasiko eNingizimu Afrika.

Umthetho Womshado (iNingizimu Afrika), [5] umthetho olawula ukusebenza ngokusemthethweni komshado, awushongo lutho olungasho lutho ngabalingani bomshado. Kodwa-ke, isigaba 30 (1) salesi senzo (njengoba sishiwo nguMthetho Wokulungiswa Kwemishado, we-1973) sidinga ukuthi isiphathimandla somshado sibuze umuntu ngamunye emshadweni:

"Ngabe wena, AB, uyamemezela ukuthi ngokwazi kwakho akukho mqobo osemthethweni emshadweni wakho ohlongozwayo one- CD lapha, nokuthi ubiza bonke lapha ukuba bafakaze ukuthi uthatha iCD njengomkakho osemthethweni (noma umyeni wakhe) ?" futhi ngemuva kwalokho amaqembu anikezane isandla sokudla kanti isiphathimandla somshado esithintekayo siyomemezela umshado onesivumelwano ngamagama alandelayo: "Ngimemezela ukuthi u-AB no-CD lapha babeshade ngokusemthethweni.

UMthethosisekelo wesikhashana owaqala ukusebenza ngo-Ephreli 1994, kanye noMthethosisekelo wokugcina owawuthatha ngoFebhuwari 1997, womabili ukwenqabela ukucwaswa okungafanele ngenxa yesifiso sokuya ocansini. Isigaba 9 soMthethosisekelo wokugcina waseNingizimu Afrika unikeza kanjena:

(1) Wonke umuntu uyalingana phambi komthetho futhi unelungelo lokuvikelwa okulinganayo nokuzuzwa ngumthetho.

(2) Ukulingana kufaka phakathi ukuthokozela okugcwele nokulinganayo kwawo wonke amalungelo nenkululeko.

(3) Umbuso awunakudlulwa ngokungafanele noma ngokungaqondile kunoma ngubani ngesizathu esisodwa noma ngaphezulu, kufaka phakathi ubuhlanga, ubulili, ubulili, ukukhulelwa, isimo somshado, imvelaphi yobuhlanga noma yenhlalo, umbala, ukubhekisisa ezocansi, ubudala, ukukhubazeka, inkolo, unembeza, inkolelo, isiko, ulimi nokuzalwa.

(4) Akekho umuntu ongabandlulula ngokungafanele kunoma ngubani ngesizathu esisodwa noma ngaphezulu ngokwesigaba (3).

Isigaba 10 soMthethosisekelo sihlinzekela ukuthi "wonke umuntu unesithunzi semvelo kanye nelungelo lokuthi isithunzi sabo sihlonishwe futhi sivikelwe."

AmaqinisoUkuhlela

Abafakizicelo kwakunguNkz Marié Adriaana Fourie noNkz Cecelia Johanna Bonthuys, umbhangqwana ongathandani nabathandanayo. Ngaphambi kokulalelwa kwecala, izicelo zenziwa ngabeDooms For Life International kanye nommeli waso wezomthetho, uMnuz John Smyth, ukuthi bavunyelwe njenge-amici curiae. Isicelo semukelwa njenge-amicus curiae sabuye senziwa yiMishado Alliance yaseNingizimu Afrika, sisekelwa encwadini efungelwe nguKhadinali Wilfred Napier.

IsahluleloUkuhlela

Amajaji ayisishiyagalolunye alalele leli cala avumelana ngokungananazi ukuthi abashadikazi bobulili obufanelwe banelungelo lokushada, bayichaza kanjalo-ke le ncazelo yomthetho ojwayelekile wokuthi umshado awuhambelani noMthethosisekelo futhi awusebenzi ngendlela yokuthi awuvumi ukuthi abantu abathandana nabobulili obuhlukile bajabulele Isimo nezinzuzo ezihambisana nemithwalo yemfanelo eyanikwa imibhangqwana engafani nobungqingili. Babengavumelani ngokuthola ikhambi. Iningi limise ukumenyezelwa kokungasebenzi isikhathi esingunyaka ukuze kuvunyelwe isikhathi sePhalamende sokulungisa iphutha. Iphinde yamemezela ukuthi okushiwo kusigaba 30 (1) soMthetho Womshado ngemuva kwamagama athi "noma umyeni" wamagama "noma oshade naye" akuhambelani noMthethosisekelo, futhi akuvumelekile ngezinga lokungahambelani. Futhi, isimemezelo sokungabonakali sasimisiwe unyaka wonke ukuze kuvunyelwe isikhathi sePhalamende sokulungisa iphutha. [6] UJustice Kate O'Regan, ophikisana naye yedwa ngokwengxenye, ucabanga ukuthi lesi simiso kufanele siguqulwe ngokushesha.

Ukutholwa kwenkantolo bekuncike esigabeni 9 soMthethosisekelo waseNingizimu Afrika, ikakhulukazi ilungelo lokuvikelwa okulinganayo kanye nokuhlomula komthetho esigabeni 9 (1) kanye nokwenqatshelwa okucacile kokubandlululwa, kubandakanya nesisekelo Ukuya ocansini, esigabeni. 9 (3). Umthetho ojwayelekile nesigaba 30 (1) soMthetho Womshado wakwenqabela ukuvikela abashadikazi bobulili obufanayo nokuzuzwa komthetho, ngokungqubuzana nesigaba 9 (1) soMthethosisekelo, futhi kwahlangana ndawonye kwaholela ekutheni imibhangqwana yobungqingili eyodwa ifakwe ngaphansi ukucwaswa okungafanele nguMbuso, kungqubuzana nesigaba 9 (3) soMthethosisekelo. [7] Lapho kuhlaziywa umongo wombuso wonke wezomthetho, incazelo yomthetho ojwayelekile ngomshado kanye nesigaba 30 (1) soMthetho Womshado ayibandakanyiwe, amaSach atholakala, futhi awahambisani noMthethosisekelo ngezinga lokuthi awazange enze sivumelwano esifanele Abantu abathandana nobungqingili ukugubha izinyunyana zabo ngendlela efanayo evumela ngayo imibhangqwana engafani nabobulili obuhlukile ukwenza. [8] Lokhu kwephulwa kwamalungelo okulingana kanye nesithunzi semibhangqwana yobungqingili abulingani njengoba kuchaziwe esigabeni sama-36 soMthethosisekelo. [9]

Ukwehluleka komthetho ojwayelekile kanye noMthetho Womshado wokuhlinzeka ngezindlela lapho imibhangqwana yobungqingili ingajabulela isimo esifanayo, amalungelo kanye nemithwalo yemfanelo enikezwe imibhangqwana engashadene nobungqingili ngomshado ngakho-ke lokho kuwukwephula ilungelo labo lokuvikelwa okulinganayo komthetho ngaphansi kwesigaba 9 (1), nokuthi singabandlululwa ngokungafanele ngokwesigaba 9 (3) soMthethosisekelo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukwehluleka okunjalo kuveze ukuphulwa okungenakulungiseka kwelungelo labo lesithunzi ngokwesigaba 10 soMthethosisekelo. [10]

Yinto eyodwa, abhalwe ngabakwaSach, ukuthi iNkantolo Yomthethosisekelo ivume iqhaza elibalulekile elethwa yinkolo empilweni yomphakathi; kungenye futhi ukuthi isebenzise imfundiso yenkolo njengomthombo wokuhumusha uMthethosisekelo. Kungaba ngaphandle kokusebenzisa imizwa yenkolo yabathile njengesiqondisi samalungelo omthethosisekelo abanye. Abahluleli babeyobekwa esimweni esingenakubekezeleleka uma bebizelwe ukuba benze imibhalo yenkolo futhi babambe iqhaza ezindabeni ezibangele ukungezwani okujulile ezinhlanganweni zezenkolo. [11]

UMthethosisekelo, ama-Sachs uyaqhubeka, uqukethe izinhlinzeko eziningi ezigcizelela inani lomthethosisekelo lokuvuma ukwahlukahluka kanye nobuningi emiphakathini yaseNingizimu Afrika, futhi unikeze ukuthungwa okuthile kwilungelo elibanzi elibanzi lokukhululeka lokuqukethwe eliqukethwe esigabeni 18. Behlangene, baqinisekisa ilungelo labantu lokuzikhulumela ngaphandle kokuphoqwa ukuthi bazithobe emasikweni nakwinkolo yabanye, futhi bagcizelela ukubaluleka kwabantu nemiphakathi ukukwazi ukujabulela lokho okubizwa ngokuthi "ilungelo lokuhluka . " Kuwona womabili la mazwe, kutholakele indawo kumalungu emiphakathi ukusuka esimeni esikhulu. [12]

Inkantolo yaphawula ukuthi iNingizimu Afrika inenqwaba yezindlela zokwakheka kwemindeni ezivela ngokushesha njengoba umphakathi uthuthuka, ngakho-ke akufanelekile ukufaka noma yiluphi uhlobo uhlobo njengokuphela kokumukeleka emphakathini nokwamukelekayo ngokusemthethweni. Kunesidingo esikhulu somthethosisekelo sokuvuma umlando omude waseNingizimu Afrika nakwamanye amazwe ngokubhekelwa phansi kanye nokushushiswa kwezitabane Lesbians, yize kuye kwenziwa impumelelo ethile ezindaweni ezithile. Inkantolo iphinde yathola ukuthi akukho mthetho ophelele olandelwayo wamalungelo omndeni wokuziphatha kwabantu abathandana nabobulili obufanayo, nokuthi uMthethosisekelo umele ukuqothuka okudala okwedlule okuhambisana nokubekezelela kanye nokungafakwa, kanye nokuqhubekela phambili ekwamukelweni kwesidingo sokuthuthukisa umphakathi osuselwa ekulinganeni nenhlonipho yibo bonke. INkantolo iveze ukuthi obekudingida lesi yisidingo sokuqinisekisa isimo somphakathi njengenye esekelwe ekubekezeleni nasekuhloniphaneni.

Bona futhiUkuhlela

  • Ukushada kwabantu bobulili obufanayo eSouth Africa
  • Amalungelo we-LGBT eNingizimu Afrika
  • Umfelandawonye Kazwelonke Wokulingana Kwe-Gay kanye ne-Lesbian nomunye u-v. Ungqongqoshe Wezobulungiswa nabanye (1998), elinye futhi icala elinqunywe yiNkantolo YoMthethosisekelo waseNingizimu Afrika eyenqabela izenzo zobungqingili.

IzinkombaUkuhlela

AmacalaUkuhlela

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  • UBrown v Board of Education 347 US 483 (1954).
  • UCarmichele v Ungqongqoshe Wezokuphepha Nezokuphepha kanye Nenye (Isikhungo Sokungenelela Ngokwezifundo Zomthetho) 2001 (4) SA 938 (CC) (2001 (10) BCLR 995).
  • Ukuqinisekiswa KoMthethosisekelo weRiphabhulikhi yaseNingizimu Afrika, ka-1996, Ku: Re parte Sihlalo woMkhandlu Wezomthethosisekelo 19961996 (4) SA 744 (CC) (1996 (10) BCLR 1253).
  • Christian Education South Africa v Ungqongqoshe Wezemfundo2000 (4) SA 757 (CC) (2000 (10) BCLR 1051).
  • UDaniels v Campbell NO nabanye2004 (5) SA 331 (CC) (2004 (7) BCLR 735).
  • UDawood nomunye u-v onguNgqongqoshe Wezasekhaya nabanye; UShalabi nomunye u-v onguNgqongqoshe Wezasekhaya nabanye; Thomas and Another v Ngqongqoshe Wezasekhaya nabanye 2000 (3) SA 936 (CC) (2000 (8) BCLR 837).
  • UDe Lange v Smuts NO kanye nabanye1998 (3) SA 785 (CC) (1998 (7) BCLR 779).
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  • Ebrahim v Essop 1905 TS 59.
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  • UFourie nomunye u-v onguNgqongqoshe Wezasekhaya kanye Nenye (I-Lesbi ne-Gay Equity Project ingenelela njengo-Amicus Curiae) (icala le-TPD Nombolo 17280/02, 18 Okhthoba 2002).
  • UFourie nomunye u-v nguNgqongqoshe Wezasekhaya kanye no-Another2003 (5) SA 301 (CC) (2003 (10) BCLR 1092).
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  • Minister of Home Affairs and Another v Fourie and Another; Lesbian and Gay Equality Project and Others v Minister of Home Affairs and Others
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IzimoUkuhlela

  • ,UMthetho Womshado, ka-1961.

AmanothiUkuhlela

  1. 2006 (1) SA 524 (CC).
  2. Case Nos CCT 60/04, CCT 10/05.
  3. Minister of Home Affairs and Another v Fourie and Another, [2005] ZACC 19, online at http://www.saflii.org.za/za/cases/ZACC/2005/19.html
  4. Mashia Ebrahim v Mahomed Essop 1905 TS 59 (8 March 1905), Supreme Court of the Transvaal
  5. Act 25 of 1961.
  6. Para 162.
  7. Para 78.
  8. Para 82.
  9. Para 113.
  10. Para 114.
  11. Para 92.
  12. Para 61.

Izixhumanisi ezingaphandleUkuhlela