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Umcuko lingubuciko. Ukudlala ngebhendi, yama-okhestra, abaculi eyedwa.

Umculo uyindlela yobuciko nomsebenzi wamasiko ogama laphakathi kwawo elizwakala lihlelelwe ngesikhathi. Izincazelo ezijwayelekile zomculo zifaka phakathi izinto ezijwayelekile ezinjengokuphamba (okulawula ukucula nokuvumelana), isigqi (kanye nomqondo ohambisana nawo i-tempo, imitha, kanye nokucacisa), amandla amakhulu (umsindo nobuncane), kanye nezimpawu ze-sonic zokwehlukana kwezikhathi nokwakheka (okuyizimpawu kwesinye isikhathi babebiza "umbala" womsindo womculo). Izitayela ezahlukene noma izinhlobo zomculo zingagcizelela, zigcizelele noma zishiya ezinye zalezi zinto. Umculo wenziwa ngezinsimbi eziningi zomculo namasu wokuphamba kusuka ekuculeni kuya ekudonselweni kwezintambo; kunezingcezu ezisizayo, izingcezu zamazwi kuphela (njengezingoma ngaphandle kokuhambisana) nezinsimbi ezihlanganisa ukucula nezinsimbi. Leli gama lisuselwa kwelesiGrikhi elithi μi υσ ή ή (mousike; "art of the Muses"). [1] Bheka uhlu lwamagama omculo.

Ngendlela ebanzi kakhulu, imisebenzi echaza umculo njengefomu lobuciko noma umsebenzi wamasiko ifaka ukwakhiwa kwemisebenzi yomculo (izingoma, izingoma, izingoma, njalonjalo), ukugxekwa komculo, ucwaningo ngomlando womculo, ukuhlolwa okumnandi komculo. Izazi zefilosofi zasendulo zamaGrikhi nezaseNdiya zachaza umculo njengamathoni ayalwa ngokuqondile njengamaculo nangokubheka njengokuvumelanisa. Izinkulumo ezijwayelekile ezinjengokuthi "ukuvumelana kwezinhlaka" nokuthi "ziwumculo ezindlebeni zami" zikhomba emcabangweni wokuthi umculo uvame uku-odolwa futhi kumnandi ukuwulalela. Kodwa-ke, umqambi wekhulu lama-20 uJohn Cage wayecabanga ukuthi noma yimuphi umsindo ungaba ngumculo, ngokwesibonelo, "Akukho msindo, kuphela umsindo." [2]

Ukudalwa, ukusebenza, ukubaluleka, kanye nencazelo yomculo iyahlukahluka ngokwesiko nangokwenhlalo yomphakathi. Ngempela, kuwo wonke umlando, ezinye izinhlobo ezintsha noma izitayela zomculo ziye zagxekwa ngokuthi "aziwona umculo", kufaka ne-Beethoven's Grosse Fuge string quartet ngonyaka we-1825, [3] jazz wakuqala ekuqaleni kweminyaka yama-1900s [4] ne-punks hard hard 1980s. [5] Kunezinhlobo eziningi zomculo, kufaka phakathi umculo othandwayo, umculo wendabuko, umculo wezobuciko, umculo obhalelwe imikhosi yenkolo nezingoma zomsebenzi ezifana nezama-chanteys. Umculo usukela ezingomeni ezihlelwe ngokuqinile-- ezinjengezingoma zomculo weClassical ezivela kuma-1700s kanye no-1800s, kuze kube yilapho wadlala umculo othambekisayo onjenge-jazz, nezitayela ze-avant-garde zomculo wesimanjemanje owenziwe ngekhulu lama-20 nelama-21.

Umculo ungahlukaniswa ngezinhlobo zemvelo (isib. Umculo wezwe) kanti izinhlobo zingahlukaniswa futhi zihlukaniswe ngama-subgenres (isb., I-blues yezwe ne-pop yezwe ezimbili zezinto eziningi zezwe), yize imigqa yokuhlukanisa nobudlelwano phakathi kwezinhlobo zomculo zivame ukufihlakala, kwesinye isikhathi kuvulekele ekuhunyushweni komuntu, futhi ngezikhathi ezithile kube nokuphikisana. Isibonelo, kungaba nzima ukudweba umugqa phakathi kwamatshe athile aqalwa ngo-1980s nensimbi esindayo. Ngaphakathi kwezobuciko, umculo ungahlukaniswa njengobuciko bokwenza, ubuciko obuhle noma ubuciko bokuzwa. Umculo ungadlalwa futhi uzwakale bukhoma ekhonsathini ye-rock noma i-orchestra, noma ungaqoshwa umsakazo, Isidlali seMP3, iCD. isidlali, i-smartphone noma njengamaphuzu wefilimu noma umdlalo we-TV.

Emiphakathini eminingi, umculo uyingxenye ebalulekile yendlela yokuphila yabantu, njengoba idlala indima enkulu emicikilweni yenkolo, isiko lemicikilisho edlula (isib. Iziqu kanye nomshado), imisebenzi yezenhlalo (isib. Ukudansa) nemisebenzi yamasiko aqala kuminyaka yonke karaoke ukucula ukudlala ebhendi ye-amateur funk noma ukucula ekwayeni yomphakathi. Abantu bangenza umculo njengendlela yokuzilibazisa, njengomuntu osemusha odlala i-cello eqenjini le-orchestra yentsha, noma asebenze njengomculi noma umculi osezingeni eliphezulu. Imboni yezomculo ifaka phakathi abantu abakha izingoma ezintsha nezingoma zomculo (njengababhali bezingoma nabaqambi), abantu abadlala umculo (ohlanganisa i-orchestra, i-jazz band nabaculi be-rock band, abaculi nabaqhubi), abantu abaqopha umculo (abakhiqizi bomculo kanye onjiniyela bemisindo), abantu abahlela ukuvakasha kwekhonsathi, nabantu abathengisa ukuqoshwa, umculo wephepha, nezikolo kumakhasimende.

Njengendlela yobuciko noma ukuzijabulisaUkuhlela

Umculo wenziwa futhi wenzelwe izinhloso eziningi, ezisuselwa enjabulweni yobuhle, ngezinjongo zenkolo noma zemikhosi, noma njengomkhiqizo wokuzijabulisa wemakethe. Lapho umculo utholakala kuphela ngokusebenzisa amamaki omculo wezinsizakalo, njengasezinsukwini zamaClassical nezamaRomantic, abathandi bomculo babezothenga umculo wezinhlamvu zezicucu nezingoma zabo abazithandayo ukuze bakwazi ukuwenza ekhaya upiyano. Ngokuqala kokuqoshwa komsindo, amarekhodi wezingoma ezidumile, kunokuba umculo we-sheet ube yindlela evelele yokuthi abathandi bomculo bazijabulele izingoma zabo abazithandayo. Ngokuqala kwamarekhodi asekhaya amakhamera ngeminyaka yama-1980s kanye nomculo wedijithali ngeminyaka yama-1990s, abathandi bomculo bangenza amateyipu noma uhlu lwadlalwayo lwezingoma zabo abazithandayo futhi bahambe nazo kwisidlali samakhasethi esiphathwayo noma isidlali se-MP3.[6] Abanye abathandi bomculo bakha amakhomputha wokuxubha wezingoma zabo eziyizintandokazi, "njengezithombe, isithombe sobungani, ukunikezwa kwephathi efanelekile [kanye] nemvelo ehlanganisa lokho okuthandwa kakhulu." [7]

Abaculi base-Amateur bangaqamba noma benze umculo ukuze bazijabulise, futhi bathola imali yabo kwenye indawo. Abaculi abaqeqeshiwe baqashwa yizikhungo nezinhlangano ezahlukahlukene ezibandakanya amabutho ahlomile (emabhendini ahambayo, amaqembu ekhonsathi, namaqembu omculo athandwayo), amasonto kanye namasinagoge, ama-symphony orchestras, izinkampani zokusakaza noma zefilimu, nezikole zomculo. Abaculi abaqeqeshiwe kwesinye isikhathi basebenza njengama-freelancers noma abaculi beseshini, bafuna izinkontileka nokuzibandakanya kuzilungiselelo ezahlukahlukene. Ngokuvamile kunokuxhumana okuningi phakathi kwabaculi abangama-amateur nabachwepheshe. Abaculi abaqala amateur bathatha izifundo nabaculi abaqeqeshiwe. Ezilungiselelweni zomphakathi, abaculi abaphambili be-amateur basebenza nabaculi abaqeqeshiwe kuma-ensembles ahlukahlukene njengamaqembu ekhonsathi yomphakathi namaqembu womphakathi.

Ukwahluka kuvame ukwenziwa phakathi komculo owenzelwe izithameli ezibukhoma nomculo owenziwa esitudiyo ukuze uqoshwe futhi usatshalaliswe ngohlelo lokuthengisa ngomculo noma uhlelo lokusakaza. Ukuqoshwa kwekhonsathi ebukhoma kuyathandwa kuzo zombili izinhlobo zomculo eziyisisekelo nakwezindlela zomculo ezidumile ezinjengetshe, lapho kukhulunywa ngokungekho emthethweni amakhonsathi bukhoma ngabathandi bomculo. Esimweni se-jam band, bukhoma, ithuthukisiwe izikhathi zejamu zithandelwa ukuqoshwa kwesitudiyo.

IzinkombaUkuhlela

  1. "Mousike, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon, at Perseus". perseus.tufts.edu. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2368891. Retrieved 2019-11-11. 
  2. Kozinn, Allen (13 August 1992). "John Cage, 79, a Minimalist Enchanted With Sound, Dies". The New York Times. https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE1DB1E3BF930A2575BC0A964958260. Retrieved 2019-11-11. 
  3. Watson 2009, 109–10.Template:Incomplete short citation
  4. Reiland Rabaka. Hip Hop's Amnesia: From Blues and the Black Women's Club Movement to Rap and the Hip Hop Movement. Lexington Books, 2012. p. 103
  5. Manabe, Noriko. The Revolution Will Not Be Televised: Protest Music After Fukushima. Oxford University Press, 2015. p. 163.
  6. "mp3juice" (in en). https://thenewsregion.com/mp3-juice-free-music-download/. 
  7. Kirszner, Laurie G. (January 2012). Patterns for College Writing. Bedford/St. Martin's. p. 520. Template:ISBN