Unyawo (ubuningi: izinyawo ) isakhiwo se- anatomy esitholakala kuma-vertebrate amaningi.Kuyingxenye yokugcina yesitho esithwala isisindo futhi esivumela ukuqhuma.Ezilwaneni eziningi ezinezinyawo,unyawo luhlukile  isitho engxenyeni yokugcina yomlenze esakhiwe yizingxenye noma amathambo noma ithambo elilodwa, ngokuvamile kufaka phakathi uzipho noma izipikili.

unyawo lwomuntu.

IgamaEdit

Igama elithi "unyawo", ngomqondo wencazelo "ingxenye yokugcina yomlenze wesilwane esinomgogodla" livela kunyawo "lwesiNgisi Esidala", kusuka ku-Proto-Germanic * fot (umthombo futhi we-Old Frisian fot, Old Saxon fot, I-Old Norse fotr, i-fod yaseDenmark, i-fot yaseSweden, i-voet yaseDashi, i-Old High fuoz yaseJalimane, i-German Fuß, i-Gothic fotus "unyawo"), kusuka kuzimpande ze-PIE * ped- "unyawo.""Izinyawo zezimo zobuningi ziyisibonelo sokuguquka komzimba."

IsakhiwoEdit

 
Izinyawo zosana .
 
Intombazane efake iqakala onyaweni

AmathamboEdit

 
Umdwebo wamathambo emlenzeni nasezinyaweni ezingezansi.
  • tibia, i- fibula
  • itarsus (7): i- talus, i- calcaneus, i- cuneiformes (3), i- cuboid, ne- navicular
  • i-metatarsus (5): ithambo lokuqala le-metatarsal lokuqala, lesibili, lesithathu, lesine, nelesihlanu
  • ama-phalanges (14)

Kungaba namathambo amaningi we-sesamoid eduze kwamalunga we-metatarsophalangeal, yize ekhona kuphela engxenyeni ye-distal yethambo lokuqala le-metatarsal.[1]

ImengamoEdit

Unyawo lomuntu lunamakhothamo amabili e- longitudinal kanye ne-arch enqamulelayo enakekelwa ukwakheka kokuhlangana kwamathambo ezinyawo, imisipha eqinile, nokudonsa imisipha ngesikhathi somsebenzi.Ukuhamba okuncane kwalawa makhothamo lapho isisindo sifakwa futhi sisuswe onyaweni kwenza ukuhamba nokugijima kube ukonga ngokwengeziwe ngamandla. Njengoba kungahlolwa ezinyaweni, i-medial longitudinal arch curves ngaphezu komhlaba.Leli khothamo lisuka ethanjeni lesithende ngaphezu kwethambo leqakala "lekhiye elingukhiye" liye kuzinsimbi ezintathu eziphakathi.Ngokuphambene, i-lateral longitudinal arch iphansi kakhulu. Njengoba i-cuboid isebenza njengetshe eliyisihluthulelo sayo, isabalalisa ingxenye yengxenye yesisindo ku-calcaneus nasekugcineni kwedatha yemetararsal yesihlanu.Ama-arch amabili e-longitudinal asebenza njengezinsika zetshe elijikelezayo eligijima ngokulingana ngaphesheya kwamalunga we-tarsometatarsal.Ukuhlukumezeka ngokweqile ezintanjeni nasemigudwini yezinyawo kungabangela ukugoqa okuwile noma izinyawo eziyizicaba.[2]

ImisiphaEdit

Imisipha esebenza onyaweni ingahlukaniswa ibe yimisipha engaphandle,leyo evela engxenyeni yangaphakathi noma yangemuva yomlenze ongezansi,nemisipha yangaphakathi,evela ezicini zonyawo (phezulu) noma isitshalo (isisekelo) sonyawo.

OkudluleleEdit

 
Ngaphambili imisipha yomlenze.

Yonke imisipha evela emlenzeni ongezansi ngaphandle kwemisipha ye-popliteus inamathiselwe emathanjeni onyawo.Itibia ne-fibula kanye nolwelwesi oluhlukanisayo luhlukanisa le misipha ibe ngamaqembu angaphambili nangemuva, ngokuhlukana kwabo kwahlukaniswa kwaba ngamaqenjana nezendlalelo.[3]

UkuphinyiselwaEdit

Ku-anatomy, ukubizela kungukuhamba okujikelezayo kwengalo (ejoyinini le-radioulnar) noma unyawo (kumajoyini angaphansi nethalocalcaneonavicular).Ukuphinyiselwa senyawo kusho ukuthi umzimba ihambisa isisindo njengoba imijikelezo ngokusebenzisa Gait.Ngesikhathi somjikelezo we-gait unyawo lungaphimisa ngezindlela eziningi ezahlukahlukene ngokuya ngomsebenzi we-footfoot ne-forefoot.Izinhlobo zokuphinyiselwa zifaka ukubiza okungathathi hlangothi, ukubizelwa phansi (ukukhishwa), nokubhalwa ngaphezulu.

Ukuphinyiselwa okungathathi hlangothi

Umuntu neutrally pronates ekuqaleni ushaya phansi phezu lateral ohlangothini isithende.Njengoba umuntu ehambisa isisindo kusuka esithendeni kuya emethatarsus, unyawo luzogingqika luye ohlangothini oluphakathi, ukuze isisindo sisatshalaliswe ngokulinganayo kuwo wonke ama-metatarsus.Kulesi sigaba se-gait, idolo ngokuvamile, kodwa hhayi njalo, lizolandela ngqo ngaphezulu kwe- hallux.

Lokhu kunyakaza kokungena ngaphakathi njengoba unyawo luqhubeka ukusuka esithendeni kuye ozwaneni yindlela umzimba ngokwemvelo omunca ngayo ukwethuka.Ukuphinyiselwa okungathathi hlangothi uhlobo oluhle kakhulu, olusebenzayo lwe-gait lapho usebenzisa isiteleka sesithende ;esitelekeni sangaphambili,umzimba umunca ukushaqeka esikhundleni ngokuguquguquka konyawo.

Ukweqisa ngokweqile

Njengomabizeli ongathathi hlangothi, umuntu odlula ngaphezulu uqala ngokushaya phansi ohlangothini lwesithende.Njengoba umuntu ehambisa isisindo kusuka esithendeni esiya kwimetatarsus, noma kunjalo, unyawo luzogingqika kakhulu luye ohlangothini oluphakathi,ukuze isisindo sisatshalaliswe ngokungalingani kuyo yonke i-metatarsus,ngesisindo esedlulele esithwelwe ku-hallux.Kulesi sigaba se-gait, idolo ngokuvamile,kodwa hhayi njalo, lizolandela ngaphakathi.

I-Underpronation
 
Ukubhalwa phansi konyawo

Umuntu osebenzela ngaphansi uphinde aqale ngokushaya phansi ohlangothini lwe-lateral lwesithende.Njengoba umuntu ehambisa isisindo kusuka esithendeni uye emethatarsus, unyawo ngeke luzigingqe ngokwanele kusiqondisi sangaphakathi. Isisindo sisatshalaliswa ngokungalingani kuyo yonke i-metatarsus, ngesisindo esedlulele esithwalwa ku- metatarsal yesihlanu,kuya ohlangothini lwonyawo olulandelayo.Kulesi sigaba se-gait, idolo ngokuvamile, kodwa hhayi njalo, lizolandela ngemuva kwe- hallux.

Umphakathi namasikoEdit

Abantu bavame ukugqoka izicathulo noma izicathulo ezifanayo ukuzivikela ezingozini lapho behamba ngaphandle. Kunezimo eziningi lapho kubhekwa njengokungafanele ukugqoka izicathulo. Abanye abantu bakubheka njengokungahloniphi ukufaka izicathulo endlini kanti iMaori Marae kufanele ingeniswe kuphela ngezinyawo.

Ukusetshenziswa kokuqhathanisa nokwamasikoEdit

 
Ukufundwa kwezinyawo ezimbili, ngo-1847, nguMargaret Louisa Herschel, indodakazi kaJohn Herschel, ovela eRoyal Museums Greenwich

Igama elithi "unyawo" lisetshenziselwa ukubhekisa ku "...umugqa olinganiselwe wawuse-Old English (ubude obuqondile buye bahluka ngokuhamba kwesikhathi), lokhu kubhekwa njengobude bonyawo lomuntu; iyunithi yokukala esetshenziswa kabanzi futhi endulo.Ngalomqondo ubuningi buvame ukuba yizinyawo.I-intshi nezinyawo zamanje zishiwo kukalwa ku-12c. "Igama "unyawo" futhi linencazelo yomculo; a "... metric foot (sekwephuzile Old English, translating Latin pes, Greek pous ngomqondo ofanayo) kuvame ukuthathwa ukumela ukuphakama okukodwa nokuwa konyawo:ukugcina isikhathi ngokusho kwabanye, ukudansa ngokuya kwabanye." [4]

  1. Platzer 2004, p. 220
  2. Mareb-Hoehn 2007, pp. 244–45
  3. Platzer 2004, p. 256
  4. Empty citation (help)