Ushukela

Ushukela noma isiNcithi igama elejwayelekile lokunambitha okumnandi, ama-carbohydrate ancibilikayo, amaningi awo asetshenziswa ekudleni. Ushukela wethebula, ushukela ohlanganisiwe, noma ushukela ojwayelekile, kubhekisa kusincishuko, isincithimbili (disaccharide) eyenziwe ngesincihleke (glucose), nesincithelo.

Cube_sugar_bowl_at_Matching_Green,_Essex,_England Ushukela olula, obizwa nangokuthi isincithinye, kufaka phakathi isincihleke, isincithelo nesincintusi (galactose). Ushukela oyinhlanganisela, obizwa nangokuthi izincithimbili noma ushukela ophindwe kabili, ngamachembe akhiwa izincithinye ezimbili ezilunge isibopho se-glycosidic. Izibonelo ezivamile yi-sucrose (ushukela wetafula) isincihleke + isincithelo, isincibisi (isincibisi + isincintusi), nesincimbewu (maltose) (amachembe amabili wesincihleke). Emzimbeni, ushukela ohlangene uhanjiswa ngamanzi ushukela olula.

Imihume emidde yesincithinye ayithathwa njengoshukela, futhi ibizwa ngama-oligosaccharides noma ama-polysaccharides. Isitashi yi-glucose polymer etholakala ezitshalweni, futhi ingumthombo wamandla amaningi kakhulu ekudleni kwabantu. Ezinye izinto zamakhemikhali, njenge-glycerol noshukela alcohol, zingaba nokunambitheka okumnandi, kepha azihlukaniswa njengoshukela.

Ushukela utholakala ezicutshini zezitshalo eziningi. Uju nezithelo yimithombo eminingi yemvelo kashukela olula ongenamkhawulo. I-Sucrose igxile kakhulu ezimobeni nasesithombo sebhitrudi, ibenze balungele ukukhishwa kahle kwezentengiselwano ukwenza ushukela ocwengekile. Ngo-2016, ukukhiqizwa komhlaba okuhlangene kwalezo zilimo ezimbili kwakungamathani ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezimbili. I-Maltose ingahle ikhiqizwe ngokusanhlamvu okusanhlamvu. I-Lactose iwukuphela koshukela ongeke ukhishwe ezitshalweni. Itholakala kuphela obisini, kufaka phakathi ubisi lwebele lomuntu, nakweminye imikhiqizo yobisi. Umthombo oshibhile kashukela yisiraphu yommbila, ekhiqizwa ezimbonini ngokuguqula isitashi sommbila sibe ushukela, njenge-maltose, i-fructose ne-glucose.


Isincishuko isetshenziswa ekudleni okulungiselelwe (isb.amakhukhi namakhekhe), kwesinye isikhathi kuyengezwa ekudleni naseziphuzweni ezicutshungulwayo ezitholakale ngentengiso, futhi ingasetshenziswa ngabantu njengesiphuzo sokudla (isb. amalumulondo nokhozo) neziphuzo (isb. Ikhofi netiye). Umuntu ojwayelekile udla cishe ama-24 kilograms (53 lb) kashukela unyaka nonyaka, kanti abaseNyakatho nabaseNingizimu Melika badla kuze kufike kuma-50 kilograms (110 lb) kuthi abase-Afrika badle ngaphansi kwama-20 kilograms (44 lb). [1] Ngenkathi ukusetshenziswa kukashukela kukhula engxenyeni yokugcina yekhulu lama-20, abacwaningi baqala ukubheka ukuthi ukudla okunoshukela, ikakhulukazi ushukela ocwengekile, kuyayilimaza yini impilo yomuntu. Ukusetshenziswa ngokweqile kukashukela kube nomthelela ekuqaleni kokukhuluphala, isifo sikashukela, isifo senhliziyo, ukuwohloka komqondo, nokubola kwamazinyo. Ucwaningo oluningi luzamile ukucacisa lokho okushiwoyo, kepha kube nemiphumela ehlukahlukene, ikakhulukazi ngenxa yobunzima bokuthola abantu abazosetshenziswa njengezilawuli ezidla ushukela omncane noma ongenawo nhlobo. Ngo-2015, i-World Health Organisation yancoma ukuthi abantu abadala nezingane banciphise ukuphuza kwabo ushukela wamahhala kube ngaphansi kuka-10%, futhi yakhuthaza ukwehliselwa ngaphansi kuka-5%, kwamandla abo aphelele.

I-EtymologyEdit

I-etymology ikhombisa ukusabalala kwempahla. Kusuka eSanskrit (śarkarā), okusho ukuthi "ushukela ophansi noma othosiwe", kwafika i-Persian shakar, kwabe sekufika ngekhulu le-12 leFrance kanye noshukela waseNgilandi. [3]

Igama lesiNgisi elithi jaggery, ushukela omahhadlahhadla onsundu owenziwe ngosawoti wesundu noma ijusi lomoba, linomsuka ofanayo we-etymological: i-jágara yesiPutukezi evela e-Malayalam cakkarā, evela eSanskrit śarkarā. [4]

UmlandoEdit

Isihloko esikhulu: Umlando woshukela

Izwe lasendulo ku-Renaissance Hlela

Ukutshalwa komoba

Asia

Ushukela ukhiqizwa ezwekazini laseNdiya kusukela ezikhathini zasendulo futhi ukutshalwa kwawo kwasakazeka kusuka lapho kuya e-Afghanistan yanamuhla ngeKhyber Pass. Kwakungeyona inqwaba noma eshibhile ezikhathini zokuqala, futhi ezingxenyeni eziningi zomhlaba, uju lwalusetshenziswa kakhulu ekwenzeni ubumnandi. Ekuqaleni, abantu babehlafuna umoba oluhlaza ukuze bakhiphe ubumnandi bawo. Umoba wawungowokuzalwa ezindaweni ezishisayo njenge-Indian subcontinent (South Asia) kanye ne-Southeast Asia.

Izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zibukeka zivela ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene ngeSaccharum barberi evela eNdiya nase S. edule nase S. officinarum evela eNew Guinea. Esinye sezikhathi zokuqala zomlando ezikhuluma ngomoba sisemibhalweni yesandla yamaShayina yangekhulu lesi-8 BCE, ethi ukusetshenziswa komoba kwaqala eNdiya.

Ngokwesiko lomuthi waseNdiya (āyurveda), umoba waziwa ngegama elithi Ikṣu kanti ujusi kamoba waziwa ngokuthi iPhāṇita. Izinhlobo zayo, omqondofana nezimpawu zayo kuchazwa kuma-nighaṇṭus afana ne-Bhāvaprakāśa (1.6.23, iqembu loshukela) .USugar wahlala engabalulekile kwaze kwaba yilapho amaNdiya ethola izindlela zokuguqula ujusi lukamoba ube yi-granula