Usopolitiki

Usopolitiki ungumuntu osebenza kwezepolitiki yeqembu, noma umuntu ophethe noma ofuna isihlalo esikhethiwe kuhulumeni .Izazi zezepolitiki ziphakamisa, zeseka futhi zakha imithetho elawula umhlaba, futhi ngokwengeza, abantu bayo. Ngokubanzi nje, "usopolitiki" angaba yinoma ngubani ofuna ukufeza amandla ezepolitiki kuhulumeni .

UbunikaziEdit

 
Umdwebo wekhulu leshumi nesishiyagalolunye kaPhilipp Foltz oveza usopolitiki wase-Athene uPericles ethula inkulumo yakhe yomngcwabo odumile phambi kwePhalamende .

Abezombusazwe ngabantu abasebenza kwezepolitiki, ikakhulukazi kwezepolitiki yeqembu. Izikhundla zisukela emahhovisi asendaweni kuya emahhovisi okuphatha aphezulu kanye nawomthetho ohulumeni bezifunda nabazwelonke.Amanye amajaji akhethiwe nabaphathi bezomthetho, njengabaphathi bamaphoyisa, babhekwa njengosopolitiki.

Imidiya nenkulumoEdit

Abezombusazwe baziwa ngezinkulumo zabo, njengasezinkulumweni noma ezikhangisweni zomkhankaso.Baziwa ikakhulukazi ngokusebenzisa izingqikithi ezivamile ezibavumela ukuthi bathuthukise izikhundla zabo zezepolitiki ngokwemigomo ejwayelekile kubavoti. [1] Abezombusazwe okudingeka babe ngabasebenzisi abangochwepheshe bezindaba.[2]Abezombusazwe ngekhulu le-19 basebenzise kakhulu amaphephandaba, omagazini, namapheshana, kanye nezingqwembe. [3] Ngekhulu lama-20,bahlangana baba umsakazo nethelevishini,benza izikhangiso zethelevishini zaba yingxenye eyodwa ebiza kakhulu emkhankasweni wokhetho. [4]Ekhulwini lama-21, sebezibandakanye ngokuya ngokwengeziwe nabezindaba zenhlalo ezisuselwa kwi-Intanethi nakuma-smartphone. [5]

Amahemuhemu abelokhu edlala indima enkulu kwezepolitiki, ngamahemuhemu amabi ngomphikisi ophumelela kakhulu kunamahemuhemu amahle ngohlangothi lwakhe. [6]

Izisebenzi zikaHulumeni nempangoEdit

Uma esekhethiwe,usopolitiki uba yiNhloko kaHulumeni futhi kufanele abhekane nezikhulu zikahulumeni kanye nabasebenzi bakahulumeni . Ngokomlando,kube nokushayisana okucashile phakathi kwezinhloso zesikhathi eside zohlangothi ngalunye. [7] Ezinhlelweni ezenzelwe ukusekelwa, njenge-United States ngekhulu le-19, osopolitiki abaphumelelayo bathatha isikhundla sezikhulu zikahulumeni kanye nabasebenzi bakahulumeni abangavikelwe ngaphansi kwabasebenzi bakahulumeni abangenacala nabasekeli babo.Kwakuyi "system spoils". Ukuguqulwa kwabaSebenzi bakaHulumeni kwaqalwa ukuze kuqedwe inkohlakalo yezinsizakalo zomphakathi . [8] Kodwa-ke, emazweni amaningi athuthukile, uhlelo lwempango lusebenza ngokugcwele namuhla. [9]

Imisebenzi kanye nama-biographiesEdit

UMattozzi noMerlo bathi izindlela ezimbili eziyinhloko zomsebenzi zilandelwa ngosopolitiki emazweni entando yeningi anamuhla. Okokuqala, kuza osopolitiki bezemisebenzi. Bangosopolitiki ababusa umkhakha kahulumeni kuze kube umhlalaphansi. Okwesibili, "yizingcwethi kwezombusazwe". Lawa osopolitiki nedumela ilemuko e elibusayo amazinga athile kahulumeni efana International Ohulumeni, Federal Ohulumeni, Ohulumeni State kanye oHulumeni beNdawo ke bayeke ipolitiki ukuqala entsha ebhizinisini abasebenzisa oxhumana kwabo kwezombusazwe. [10]

Imilando yabantu bezepolitiki ifundwe kaningi, njengoba kucatshangwa ukuthi amava abo kanye nezici zabo kumisa izinkolelo zabo nokuziphatha kwabo. Kunezindlela ezine lapho i-biography yosopolitiki ingathonya isitayela namandla abo obuholi. Okokuqala ukuthi i-biography ingaba nomthelela ezinkolelweni zomuntu eziyinhloko, ezisetshenziselwa ukwakha umbono wezwe . Okwesibili ukuthi amakhono nosopolitiki abanekhono bathonywa amava abo. Izindawo zekhono nekhono zingachaza lapho zinikela khona izinsizakusebenza nokunakwa njengomholi. Indlela yesithathu ukuthi izici zomuntu siqu zingachaza futhi zilolonge izinzuzo zepolitiki. Isibonelo, umsebenzi wangaphambilini womholi, ungabukwa njengobaluleke kakhulu, okudala ukutshalwa kwemali okungalingani kwezinsizakusebenza zobuholi ukuqinisekisa ukukhula nempilo yalowo mkhakha, kubandakanya nalabo ababesebenza naye. Ezinye izibonelo ngaphandle kobungcweti zifaka izici zangaphakathi zosopolitiki, ezinjengobuhlanga noma ubulili. Indlela yesine yindlela i-biography kasopolitiki ethinta ngayo umbono wabo womphakathi, nawo ongathinta isitayela sabo sobuholi. Abapolitiki besifazane, isibonelo, bangasebenzisa amasu ahlukene ukuheha izinga elifanayo lenhlonipho elinikezwa osopolitiki besilisa. [11]

IziciEdit

Izazi eziningi ziye zafunda izici zosopolitiki, ziqhathanisa lezo ezisezingeni lasekhaya nelikazwelonke, futhi ziqhathanisa ezikhululeka kakhulu noma ezilondolozayo, futhi ziqhathanisa eziphumelele nezingaphumeleli ngokwokhetho. [12] Eminyakeni yamuva nje, ukunakwa okukhethekile kugxile emkhakheni ohlukile womsebenzi wosopolitiki besifazane. [13] Isibonelo, kunezifundo zemodeli ye- "Supermadre" kwezepolitiki zaseLatin America. [14]

Abezombusazwe abaningi banobuchule bokukhumbula izinkulungwane zamagama nobuso futhi bakhumbule ama-anecdotes abo ngabantu babo - kuyinzuzo emsebenzini, kunjengokuphakama kwamamitha ayisikhombisa kumdlali we-basketball. UMongameli waseMelika uGeorge W. Bush noBill Clinton babedume ngezinkumbulo zabo.

UkugxekwaEdit

Abagxeki abaningi bahlasela osopolitiki ngoba bengasondelene nomphakathi. Izindawo zokuxabana zifaka phakathi indlela osopolitiki abakhuluma ngayo, okuchazwe njengokuhleleka ngokweqile futhi kugcwaliswe ngezichasiso eziningi zezichasiso nezingathekiso futhi okuvame ukubonwa njengomzamo "wokufihla, ukudukisa, nokudida". [15]

Emfanekisweni odumile, osopolitiki bacatshangwa njengabantu abangenalwazi , abazithandayo, abakhohlisi, abaqambimanga, abangenalwazi, futhi abakhohlakele, bathatha imali ngokushintshanisa izimpahla noma izinsizakalo, kunokuba basebenzele umphakathi. [16] Abezombusazwe emazweni amaningi bathathwa "njengabachwepheshe abazondwa kakhulu". [17]

ImithomboEdit

  1. Jonathan Charteris-Black, Politicians and rhetoric: The persuasive power of metaphor (Palgrave-MacMillan, 2005)
  2. Ofer Feldman, Beyond public speech and symbols: Explorations in the rhetoric of politicians and the media (2000).
  3. Robert J. Dinkin, Campaigning in America: A History of Election Practices (1989) online
  4. Kathleen Hall Jamieson and Keith Spillett, The Press Effect: Politicians, Journalists, and the Stories that Shape the Political World (2014)
  5. Nathaniel G. Pearlman, Margin of Victory: How Technologists Help Politicians Win Elections (2012) online
  6. David Coast and Jo Fox, "Rumour and Politics" History Compass (2015), 13#5 pp. 222–234.
  7. Joel D. Aberbach, Robert D. Putnam, and Bert A. Rockman, eds., Bureaucrats and politicians in western democracies (Harvard University Press, 1981)
  8. David A. Schultz, and Robert Maranto, eds., The politics of civil service reform (1998).
  9. Morris Szeftel, "Political graft and the spoils system in Zambia—the state as a resource in itself." Review of African Political Economy 9.24 (1982): 4–21.
  10. Andrea Mattozzi and Antonio Merlo, "Political careers or career politicians?." Journal of Public Economics 92#3 (2008): 597–608.
  11. Krcmaric, Daniel; Nelson, Stephen C.; Roberts, Andrew (2020). "Studying Leaders and Elites: The Personal Biography Approach". Annual Review of Political Science 23: 133–151. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-050718-032801. 
  12. Timothy S. Prinz, "The career paths of elected politicians: a review and prospectus." in Shirley Williams and Edward L. Lascher, eds. Ambition and beyond: career paths of American politicians (1993) pp: 11–63.
  13. Elina Haavio-Mannila and Torild Skard, eds. Unfinished Democracy: women in Nordic politics (2013)
  14. Elsa M. Chaney, Supermadre: Women in Politics in Latin America (University of Texas Press, 2014).
  15. Invitation to Critical Thinking – Page 319, Vincent E. Barry – 2007
  16. Arnold J. Heidenheimer and Michael Johnston, eds. Political corruption: Concepts and contexts (2011).
  17. Arnold J. Heidenheimer and Michael Johnston, eds. Political corruption: Concepts and contexts (2011).