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Usuku lwaMalungelo Esintu

Usuku lwaMalungelo Esintu (eng:Freedom Day)yiholide lomphakathi elisemthethweni lase Ningizimu Afrika eligujwa mhla zingama-21 uNdasa minyaka yonke. Ngalolu suku kusuke kubungazwa amagxathu asethathwe izwe lase Ningizimu Afrika ekuthuthekiseni nasekuvikeleni Amalungelo Esintu kusukela lel langabadi lathola inkululeko [1] Ngalolu suku kubuye kukhunjulwe bonke abaqothwa eSharpvile ngamaphoyisa obandlululo bemasha ngoxolo, mhla zingama-21 uNdasa wezi-1960 (Sharpville Massacre)[2]. Leli holide laba semthethweni ngonyaka we-1994 lagujwa okokuqala mhla ziyi-21 uNdasa we-1994. Minyaka yonke leli holide lugujwa ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene eNingizimu Afrika lapho uMongameli wezwe ethula inkulumo eyibhekise esizweni sonke emayelana nokubaluleka kwalolusuku.

Isiqikili

UmsukaUkuhlela

Ngonyaka we-1948 iqembu lezombusazwe i-National Party yanikwa amandla okuphatha iNingizimu Afrika. Leli qembu lafika nemithetho eyenzelwe ukuhlukanisa kanye nokucindezela ngokobuhlanga. Lokhu okwaninka uhulumeni wangaleso sikhathi amandla okwenza imithetho elawula ukuhamba kwabantu abansundu (ama-Afrika) ezindaweni ezisemadolobheni. Inguqulo yoMthetho wezaseKhaya ngonyaka we-1952 (Native Laws Amendment Act of 1952) wawugunyaza ukuthi ama-Afrika ukuthi awavunyelwe ukuthi ashiye izndawo zasemaphandleni ngaphandle kwemvume esuka kwabezomthetho bendawo. Wabe uqhubeka uthi uma efika endaweni yasedolobheni kumele athole enye imvume emahoreni angama-72 ukubheka umsebenzi. Lencwadi yabe yaziwa ngePasi labe linalemininingwane: labe liba nesithombe, indawo lapho umuntu esuka khona, ukukhokhwa kwentela, ukuhlangana namaphoyisa kanye neminingwane ngomsebenzi [3].

Mhla zingama-21 uNdasa we-1961 inhlangano i-Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) wahlongoza umkhankaso wokuba kulowe nemithetho yamapasi. Ngalolu suku ama-Afrika aqoqana eSharpville engawaphethe amapasi azinikela empahoyiseni ukuba aboshwe. Amaphoyisa akhipha umyalelo wokuba bahlakazeke, emva kwalokho avulela ngenhlamvu kuso leso sixuku samadoda, abasefizana kanye nezingane. Abantu amaphoyisa adubula abulala abantu ababengahlomile abangama-69 balimaza abangama-180, abaningi babo bdutshulwa bebaaleka. Ukulandela lokhu kuqothwa kwabantu eSharpville uHulumeni we-National Party wavala zonke izinhlangano zombusazwe ezabe zilwa nengcindezelo. Yize zavalwa kodwa umzabalazao zawuqhuba umshosha phansi zilwa nalohulumeni. Lolu suku lwaziwa nge-Sharpville Massacre emhlabeni wonke, lwaveza ngokusobala ukuthi uhulumeni wobandlululo wabe ewahlukumeza kanjani amalungelo esintu eNingizimu Afrika [4].

Emva kwe-1994Ukuhlela

 
IFulegi laseNingizimu Afrika elethulwa ngonyaka we-1994

Leli holide lagujwa okukuqala ngonyaka we-1995 ukukhumbula labo abalahlekelwa yizimiplo zabo belwa nohulumeni wobandlululo, belwela ukuthi wonke umuntu waseNingizimu Afrika abe namalungelo ngokulingene. UMthetho Sisekelo waseNingizimu Afrika uqala uveze UMthetho Omkhulu wamaLungelo (Bill of Rights) lapho kulothshwe khona wonke amalungelo abo bonke abantu bakuleli langabadi. UMthetho Sisekelo iwona osesiqhingini esiphezulu emthethweni ezweni, iwona obekelwe ukuvikela wonke amaLungelo eSintu ayekade enganikezelwe eningingini ngesikhathi sobandlululo [5] .

UkubalulekaUkuhlela

Lolu suku lugujwa ukuveza ukuzibiphezela kuMthetho Omkhulu wamaLungelo (eng|Bill of Rights) njengoba uyinxenye yoMthetho Sisekelo yase Ningizimu Afrika. Ngalolu suku nomangenyanga yonka kaNdasa kuske kuqhakambiswa ukubaluleka kokuvikelwa kwamalungelo kubo bonke abantu abahlala eNingizimu Afrika. Ngemiyalelo kaMongameli wezwe, izwe liba nemigido eminingi ngenyanga kaNdasa lapho kususke kukhunjuzwa isizwe ukuthi sisebenzisane ndawonye ekuvikeleni nasekuqhakambiseni amalungelo esintu. Wonke umuntu wakulelizwe unesipbophezelo sokuba imtithetho yalelilizwe igcinwe [6]. Sonke sinesibophezelo sokuba amalungelo esintu kanye nomlando kugcinwe sikugcinele isizukulwane esizayo lokhu kwenzelwa ikusasa lezwe lethu. Nakuba sisemsbenzini, ezikoleni, sinesibathandayo kanye nezingane, kumele siveze ukuzibophezela eukvilekeleni amulungelo esintu kanye nomlando wesizwe, ukuze lelizwe liqhubekela phambili [7].

ImithomboUkuhlela