Galileo Galilei

Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaulti de Galilei [1] ( [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi] ; 15 uFebhuwari 1564   - 8 Januwari 1642) wayeyisazi sezinkanyezi sase-Italy, isayensi yezokwelapha kanye unjiniyela, kwesinye isikhathi ochazwa njenge- polymath, evela ePisa. [2] Galileo ubizwe "ngubaba wesayensi yokufunda izinkanyezi", [3] "ubaba wesayensi yesimanjemanje", [4] [5] "ubaba wendlela yesayensi", [6] kanye "nobaba wesayensi yanamuhla". [7]

Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei, isithombe nge Domenico Tintoretto
Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition.jpg

Galileo wafunda isivinini kanye ne- velocity, amandla adonsela phansi nokuwa kwamahhala, umgomo wokuhlobana, i- inertia, ukunyakaza kwe-projectile futhi wasebenza nesayensi esetshenzisiwe nobuchwepheshe, echaza izakhiwo ze- pendulums kanye "nemizila ye-hydrostatic", wasungula i- thermoscope namakhampasi ahlukahlukene ezempi, nokusebenzisa isibonakude sokubonwa kwesayensi kwezinto zasezulwini. Amagalelo akhe ekubukweni kwezinkanyezi ahambelana nakho afaka phakathi ukuqinisekiswa kwe-telescopic kwezigaba uVenusi, ukubonwa kwesiphuphutheki esikhulu kunazo zonke UNdonsakusa, ukubonwa kwamakhonkolo uSatureni, kanye nokuhlaziywa kwezimpawu zelanga.

Ukuwina kukaGalileo i heliocentrism ne Copernicanism kwakuyimpikiswano ngesikhathi sokuphila kwakhe, lapho iningi lababhalisela amamodeli we-geocentric anjengohlelo lweTychonic. Uhlangane nokuphikiswa okuvela kwizazi zezinkanyezi, ezazingabaza i heliocentrism ngenxa yokungabikho kwephalamende elibukhali . Le ndaba yaphenywa yiNkantolo Inquisition YaseRoma ngo-1615, eyaphetha ngokuthi I heliocentrism "yayiyisiwula futhi ayinangqondo kwifilosofi, futhi yayingumbono ngokusemthethweni ngoba iphikisana ngokusobala ezindaweni eziningi nomqondo woMbhalo Oyingcwele".

Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi Galileo wavikela imibono yakhe Inkhulumomphendvulwano Mayelana NeziNhlelo Ezibili Eziyinhloko Zomhlaba (1632), ebonakala ihlasela Papa Urban VIII futhi ngaleyo ndlela imhlukanise namaJesuit, bobabili ababeseke Galileo kuze kube manje. Wazama ukuqulwa yi-Inquisition, watholwa "esolwa ngokuhlanya", waphoqeleka ukuthi ahlehlise. Wachitha impilo yakhe yonke eboshelwe endlini. Ngesikhathi eboshelwe endlini, wabhala Amasayensi Amabili Amasha, lapho afingqa khona umsebenzi abewenze eminyakeni engamashumi amane ngaphambili kumasayensi amabili manje abizwa ngokuthi yi- kinematics futhi namandla ezinto zokwakha. [8]

Iminikelo yesayensiUkuhlela

Galileo wenza umnikelo wokuqala kwisayensi yokuhamba ngenhlanganisela entsha yokuhlola nokubala. Okujwayelekile isayensi ngaleso sikhathi kwakuyizimfundo William Gilbert, zamandla kazibuthe kanye nogesi. Ubaba ka Galileo, Vincenzo Galilei, ongumlobi wezomculo wezokwelapha kanye nomculi wezomculo, wayenze izivivinyo zokuthola mhlawumbe ubudlelwane obudala obungeyona eyaziwayo ku-physics: ngentambo eyeluliwe, iphimbo liyahluka njengempande yesikwele. [9] Lezi kokuma wayelele kohlaka Pythagorean isiko umculo, owaziwa kahle ukuze abenzi insimbi, ezazihlanganisa yokuthi ehlukanisa iziqephu yezinhlamvu by inombolo ephelele ukhiqiza ngesilinganiso obunobunye. Ngakho-ke, inani elilinganiselwe lezibalo lalinomculo ohlobene nomsuka nesayensi yezomzimba, futhi uGalileo osemncane wakwazi ukubona okwashiwo kukayise kukhulisa kulelo siko. [10]

Galileo wayengomunye wabacabangi bokuqala besimanje ukusho ngokusobala ukuthi imithetho yemvelo iyizibalo. Kuyi Le Assayer, wabhala ukuthi "I-Philosophy ibhalwe kule ncwadi enhle, indawo yonke   ... Kulotshiwe ilimi le-IiMbalo, nezinhlamvu zayo ngokuthi aboncantathu, imibuthano, nezinye izibalo Jomethri; .... " cwaningo yakhe zezibalo Uyi ukuqhubeka nesiko oqashwe ngasekupheleni zesikole zefilosofi yemvelo, okuyinto uGalileo wafunda lapho efunda ifilosofi. Umsebenzi wakhe wakhomba elinye igxathu ekuhlukaniseni isayensi okwenzeka ekugcineni kufilosofi nenkolo; ukukhula okukhulu emcabangweni womuntu. Wayevame ukuzimisele ukushintsha imibono yakhe ngokuya ngokubona. Ukuze enze izivivinyo zakhe, uGalileo kwadingeka abeke izindinganiso zobude nesikhathi, ukuze izilinganiso ezenziwe ngezinsuku ezihlukile nakulabhorethri ehlukene ziqhathaniswe ngendlela yokuzala. Lokhu kunikeze isisekelo esinokwethenjelwa lapho kungaqinisekiswa khona imithetho yemathematics ngokusebenzisa ukucabanga okuqondayo.

Galileo wakhombisa ukwazisa kwesimanje ngobuhlobo obufanele phakathi kwezibalo, ithiyori yemvelo, kanye ne-physics yokulinga. Wayeyiqonda parabola, zombili ngokwezigaba zama- conic izigaba nangokwe- ordite (y) ehlukahluka njengesikwele se- abscissa (x). UGalileo okwengeziwe wagomela ngokuthi parabola kwaba kwakuthiwa ekahle trajectory ka projectile nombala kwadlanga kakhulu ngawo-ukungabi khona emoyeni ukumelana noma ezinye thuthuva. Ubuye wavuma ukuthi kunemingcele ekuvumeni kwale le ithiyori, ephawula ngezizathu zemibhalo ethi i-projectile trajectory yosayizi oluqhathaniswa neyoMhlaba ayinakuba yi-parabola, kodwa nokho wagcina ukuthi amabanga afinyelela ebangeni lobuciko bezinsuku zakhe, ukuphambuka kwe-projectile's trajectory ku-parabola kungaba yinto encane kakhulu.

IzinkombaUkuhlela

  1. Biography of Galileo Galilei The Biography of Galileo Galilei
  2. Modinos, A. (2013). From Aristotle to Schrödinger: The Curiosity of Physics, Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics (illustrated ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 43. ISBN 978-3-319-00750-2. 
  3. Singer, C. (1941). A Short History of Science to the Nineteenth Century. Clarendon Press. p. 217. 
  4. Whitehouse, D. (2009). Renaissance Genius: Galileo Galilei & His Legacy to Modern Science. Sterling Publishing. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-4027-6977-1. 
  5. Weidhorn, Manfred (2005). The Person of the Millennium: The Unique Impact of Galileo on World History. iUniverse. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-595-36877-8. 
  6. Thomas Hobbes: Critical Assessments, Volume 1. Preston King. 1993. p. 59
  7. Disraeli, I. (1835). Curiosities of Literature. W. Pearson & Company. p. 371. 
  8. Carney, J. E. (2000). Renaissance and Reformation, 1500–1620: a. Greenwood Publishing. ISBN 978-0-313-30574-0. 
  9. Cohen, H. F. (1984). Quantifying Music: The Science of Music at. Springer. pp. 78–84. ISBN 978-90-277-1637-8. 
  10. Field, J. V. (2005). Piero Della Francesca: A Mathematician's Art. Yale University Press. pp. 317–320. ISBN 978-0-300-10342-7. 

Izixhumanisi ezingaphandleUkuhlela