Idolobhana

   


 

Idolobhana yindawo yokuhlala abantu .Amadolobha ngokuvamile kunangendlela nemizana kanye ezincane kuno emadolobheni, nakuba nenqubo ukuhlukanisa phakathi kwabo nemikhuba yazo ihluke kakhulu ezingxenyeni ezahlukene zomhlaba.

Umsuka nokusetshenziswaEdit

Igama "idolobha" labelana ngemvelaphi negama lesiJalimane elithi Zaun , igama lesiDashi elithi tuin , kanye ne- Old Norse tún.Igama lokuqala lamaProto-Germanic, * tūnan, kucatshangwa ukuthi liboleka kusenesikhathi kuProto -Celtic * dūnom (cf. dún esidala sase-Ireland , I- Welsh din ).

Umqondo wokuqala wegama kuzo zombili iziJalimane nesiCeltic wawungowenqaba noma indawo ebiyelwe.Izinkomba ze- "town" ngezilimi eziningi zesimanje zaseJalimane zisho uthango noma uthango.NgesiNgisi nangesiDashi, incazelo yaleli gama yathatha umqondo wesikhala lalezi zicingo ezivalekile, futhi lapho kufanele kugijime khona ithrekhi.ENgilandi, idolobha lalingahambisani umphakathi omncane ukuthi ababengenamandla okukuthola noma ubekade angavunyelwe Yakha izindonga noma ezinye izinqaba ezinkulu, wakha udonga, amaqembu noma stockade esikhundleni.  ENetherlands, lesi sikhala kwakuyinsimu, ikakhulukazi leyo yabacebile, eyayinocingo oluphakeme noma udonga olubazungezile (njengensimu yesigodlo saseHet Loo e- Apeldoorn, okwakuyisibonelo se ingadi kaWilliam III noMary II eHampton Court ).Ku-Old Norse tún lisho indawo (enotshani) phakathi kwezindawo zokulima, futhi leli gama lisasetshenziswa linencazelo efanayo ngesiNorway sanamuhla.

I-Old English tūn yaba yisijobelelo esivamile segama lendawo eNgilandi naseningizimu-mpumalanga yeScotland ngesikhathi sokuhlala kwama-Anglo-Saxon. Ku- Old English naku-Early and Middle Scots, amagama athi ton, ibizo, njll.Angabhekisa ezinhlotsheni ezahlukahlukene zezindawo eziqhamuka ezindaweni zezolimo kanye nasekubambeni, ngokwengxenye ethatha umqondo weNorse (njengakwiScots word fermtoun ) ekugcineni kwesikali, komasipala abaqinisiwe.Ezinye izijobelelo ezijwayelekile ze-Anglo-Saxon zifaka i- ham 'home', i- stede 'stead', ne- burh 'burury, borough, burgh'.

Kwezinye izimo, igama elithi "idolobha" elinye igama elithi "idolobha" noma "isigodi" (ikakhulukazi isigodi esikhulu). Kwesinye isikhathi, igama elithi "idolobha" lifushane ngokuthi "ilokishi".Ngokuvamile, amadolobha namuhla kungenziwa umahluko kusuka emalokishini, emizaneni, noma imizana ngesisekelo uhlamvu yabo zomnotho, ukuthi iningi labantu edolobheni sika azothanda okuzuza baziphilise kusukela yokukhiqiza umkhakha, commerce, futhi izinkonzo zomphakathi kunokuba wemboni eyinhloko izimboni njengezolimo noma imisebenzi ehlobene.

Usayizi wesibalo sendawo akuyona into enokwethenjelwa yohlamvu lwasemadolobheni.Ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba, isb. ENdiya okungenani kuze kube yizikhathi zakamuva nje, idolobhana elikhulu lingaqukatha abantu abaphindwe kaningana kunedolobha elincane.E- United Kingdom, kunamadolobha omlando amancane kakhulu kunamadolobha amakhulu.

 
IMõisaküla yidolobha elincane elisengxenyeni eseningizimu ye- Estonia, eduze nje nomngcele weLatvia . Inani lamanje ledolobha lingaphansi kwezakhamizi eziyinkulungwane.

Umkhuba wanamuhla wokukhula okukhulu kwamadolobha, ukuthuthukiswa kwamasayithi ngamasayimane, kanye nokufudukela kwabahlali emadolobheni kuye kwayenza yanzima incazelo yamadolobha, kudala imiphakathi yasemadolobheni ngezici zayo zezomnotho nezamasiko kepha ingenazo ezinye izici zezindawo ezisemadolobheni.

Ezinye izindlela zokuhlala okungezona ezasemaphandleni, njengezindawo zezimayini zesikhashana, kungabonakala zingezona ezasemakhaya, kepha okungenani kunesicelo esingabazekayo sokubizwa ngedolobha.

UmlandoEdit

Amatemu wezibaloEdit

 
Idolobha laseHancock, eMichigan kuQuincy Street

Amazwe ayi-193 abambe iqhaza emzameni ofanayo wokuvumelana ngencazelo efanayo yezibalo zale mikhakha emithathu: amadolobha, amadolobha nezindawo zasemakhaya.

Uhlelo lweminyaka yamadolobhaEdit

Isazi sokuma komhlaba sase-Australia uThomas Griffith Taylor uphakamise ukuhlukaniswa kwamadolobha ngokuya ngeminyaka yawo nendlela yokusebenzisa umhlaba.Uhlonze izinhlobo ezinhlanu zedolobha: [1]

  • Amadolobha ezingane, engenawo umkhawulo ocacile
  • Amadolobha amancane, athuthukise indawo yezitolo
  • Amadolobha asakhula, lapho izimboni seziqale ukuvela khona
  • Amadolobha okuqala avuthiwe, anendawo ehlukile yezindlu ezisezingeni eliphakeme
  • Amadolobha avuthiwe, anezimboni ezichaziwe, ezentengiso nezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zendawo yokuhlala

NgezweEdit

AfghanistanEdit

E- Afghanistan, amadolobha namadolobha aziwa ngokuthi shār ( Dari : شهر, Pashto : ښار).Njengoba izwe lingumphakathi wasemaphandleni ngokomlando onemizana embalwa emikhulu, ngamadolobha amakhulu engakaze abe nezakhamizi ezingaphezu kwamakhulu ayizinkulungwane ezimbalwa ngaphambi kweminyaka yama-2000, isiko lezilimi alibandlululi amadolobha namadolobha.

I-AlbaniaEdit

E- Albania "qytezë" kusho idolobha, elifana kakhulu negama ledolobha ( "qytet" ). Noma kungekho ukusetshenziswa okusemthethweni kwaleli gama kunoma yikuphi ukukhokhelwa.Ngesi-Albania i- "qytezë" isho ukuthi "idolobha elincane" noma "idolobha elisha", kanti ezikhathini zasendulo "indawo yokuhlala encane ngaphakathi kwezindonga zenqaba".

E-AustraliaEdit

E- Australia, izikhungo eziningi zasemakhaya nezesifunda zabantu zingabizwa ngamadolobha; amadolobha amaningi amancane anabantu abangaphansi kwama-200. [2]Okuncane kakhulu kungachazwa njengamalokishi.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ezinye izinhlangano zohulumeni basekhaya zibizwa ngokusemthethweni njengamadolobha aseQueensland, eSouth Australia, eNtshonalanga Australia naseNorthern Territory, futhi phambilini (kwaze kwaba ngawo-1990) eVictoria .

I-AustriaEdit

Uhlelo lwezomthetho lwase-Austrian alwehlukanisi phakathi kwamadolobhana, amadolobha namadolobha. Izwe lihlukaniswe laba ngomasipala abangama-2098 ( German ) wezinga elilinganayo ngokuyisisekelo.Omasipala abakhulu baqokwa njengamadolobha ezimakethe ( German ) noma amadolobha ( iStädte ), kepha lokhu kwehlukaniswa kungokomfanekiso futhi akuniki izibopho ezengeziwe zomthetho.Kunemiphakathi emincane emincane ebizwa ngamadolobha ngoba yayijwayele ukuba yizikhungo zabantu besikhathi esedlule.Idolobha laseRattenberg ngokwesibonelo linabantu ababalelwa ku-400.Idolobha laseHardegg linezakhamizi ezingaba ngu-1200, yize idolobha eliyingqophamlando - iHardegg efanele ngaphandle kwalezi ebezikade ziyizindawo ezizungezile - likhaya lemiphefumulo engama-80 kuphela.

IBulgariaEdit

 
Idolobha lasePeshtera, eBulgaria

Abantu baseBulgaria, ngokujwayelekile, abahlukanisi phakathi 'kwedolobha' nelithi 'idolobha'.Kodwa-ke, ngolimi lwansuku zonke nakwabezindaba amagama athi "amadolobha amakhulu" kanye "namadolobhana amancane" ayasetshenziswa."Amadolobha amakhulu" imvamisa abhekise eSofia, Plovdiv, Varna naseBurgas, anabantu abangaphezu kwama-200,000.URuse noStara Zagora bavame ukufakwa futhi ngenxa yokuba khona kwengqalasizinda ethuthuke kakhulu kanye nenani labantu ngaphezulu komngcele we-100,000.Kunzima ukubiza onhlokodolobha besifundazwe abasele ngokuthi "amadolobha amakhulu" njengoba, ngokuvamile, engathuthukile kangako futhi enabantu abanciphayo, amanye anabantu abambalwa njengokufika kwabangu-30,000.

I-ChileEdit

EChile, amadolobha (iSpanishi: pueblos ) achazwa yiNational Statistics Institute (INE) njengenhlangano yasemadolobheni enabantu abavela ku-2001 kuya ku-5000 noma indawo enabantu abavela ku-1001 kuya ku-2000 nomsebenzi osungulwe kwezomnotho.

i-Hong KongEdit

 
Cishe wonke amadolobha aseHong Kong anehholo lawo ledolobha. Isithombe sikhombisa iHholo leTha Tin Town edolobheni laseSha Tin .

IndiaEdit

 
Umgwaqo edolobheni laseParavur, eNdiya

Ukubalwa kwabantu eNdiya ngo-2011 kuchaza amadolobha ezinhlobo ezimbili: idolobha elisemthethweni kanye nedolobha lokubala abantu.Edolobheni emithetho kuchazwa njenganoma zonke izindawo nge umasipala, inkampani, Cantonment ibhodi noma aziswe ekomidini edolobheni endaweni.Amadolobha wokubalwa kwabantu achazwa njengezindawo ezanelisa le mibandela elandelayo:

  1. Inani eliphansi labantu abangu-5 000
  2. Okungenani ama-75% wabantu besilisa abasebenza benza izinto ezingezona ezolimo
  3. Ubuningi babantu okungenani ama-400 / km 2 . (1,000 ngesikwele semayela).

Onke amadolobha asemthethweni, amadolobha okubalwa kwabantu kanye nokukhula okuphuma ngaphandle kubhekwa njengezindawo zokuhlala ezisemadolobheni, uma kuqhathaniswa nezindawo zasemakhaya.

I-IranEdit

Emibhalweni yangaleso sikhathi yasePheresiya, akukho mehluko owenziwe phakathi "kwedolobha" nelithi "idolobha"; womabili ahumusha ngokuthi "Shahr" (شهر).Emibhalweni emidala yasePheresiya (kuze kube yingxenye yokuqala yekhulu lama-20), igama lesi-Arabhu elithi "Qasabeh" (قصبه) lalisetshenziselwa idolobha.Kodwa-ke, eminyakeni engu-50 edlule, leli gama selingasasebenzi.

  1. Goodall, B. (1987) The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Penguin.
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics, "Frequently Asked Questions". https://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/D3310114.nsf/home/Frequently+Asked+Questions#Anchor12 Retrieved 16 Oct 2019.