IsiPhathanzuba

umthombo wesidlakalasi samazuba esigciniwe esiqukethe amakhukhwana amaningi noma elilodwa

Batteries

IsiPhathanzuba siwumthombo wamandla wamazuba ahlanganisa amakhukhwana enzubavanga (electrochemical) eyodwa noma eziningi ezinoxhumo lwangaphandle olufukuthisa izilekekeli zamazuba.


Lapho isiphathanzuba sihlinzeka ngesidlakalasi, umdiyo ovumayo uba i(cathode) bese umdiyo ophikayo uba i(anode). Umdiyo ogqabwe ophikayo ungumthombo wezinzuba ezigobhoza kuntandelo yamazuba engaphandle ziye kumdiyo ovumayo. Lapho isiphathanzuba sixhunywe kumgidlabezo wamazuba ongaphandle, ukulumbana kwe(redox) kuguqula izilumbeki (reactants) zibe imikhiqizo yesidlakalasi esiphansi, bese isidlakalasi sifufuthelwa entandelweni yamazuba engaphandle njengesidlakalasi samazuba. Ngokomlando leligama elithi "isiphathanzuba" lalibhekisela kusekeleli esakhiwa amakhukhwana, kodwa namuhla selihlanganisa nesilekeleli esinekhukhwana elilodwa.

IziPhathanzuba eziyinhloko yilezo ezisetshenziswa kanye bese ziyalahlwa, njengoba isizubisi (electrode) singenakulungiseka lapho sisebenzile; isibonelo esaziwayo esesiphathanzuba sengqubathi esisetshenziswa kwisibanikazi (flashlight) nakwezinye izilekeleli zamazuba eziningi. IziPhathanzuba zesibili yilezi ezifukuthwabusha (rechargeable) ezileleseka ezikhathi eziningana ngobuzuba; lapho ukwakheka kwezizubisi kungabuyiswa. Izibonelo zihlanganisa isiphathanzuba sesimunyu somthofu esisetshenziswa ezithuthini kanye neziphathanzuba zomthanya-sihonyo osetshenziswa kuzilekeleli eziphathwayo zamazuba ezifana neziGonwa (laptops) kanye noMakhalekhukhwini.

Iziphathanzuba ziza ngemimo nobungako obuhlukene, kusuka kumakhukhwana amancane afukuthisa izilekeleli zokuzwa (hearing aids) nabomazisinkathi bohlakala, kuya kuziphathanzuba-ngodla ezinkulu ezilingana negumbi ezihlinzeka ngesidlakalasi esigciniwe noma amandla aphuthumayo izikhungo zemininingo yesicikizi neminano yocingo.

Iziphathanzuba zinesidlakalasi esicacile esiphansi uma ziqhathaniswa nezivuthisi ezivamile ezifana namafuthetshe.