Ubuciko

Ubuciko uhla olwahlukahlukene (nemikhiqizo) yemisebenzi yabantu efaka umcabango wokudala ukuveza ubuchwepheshe bezobuchwepheshe, ubuhle,amandla ezemizwa , noma imibono yomqondo.

Ukusuka ngakwesobunxele phezulu kwesokunxele: i 1887 self-portrait ngu Vincent van Gogh ; isibalo samadlozi wesifazane ngumculi waseChokwe ; imininingwane evela ku- The Birth of Venus (c. 1484-1486) kaSandro Botticelli ; nengonyama yase-Okinawan Shisa

SibutseteloEdit

Template:Wide imageNgokombono womlando wobuciko, imisebenzi yobuciko ibikhona cishe isikhathi eside njengesintu: kusukela kubuciko bangaphambi komlando kuya kubuciko besimanje ;kodwa-ke,ezinye izazi zemfundiso yenkolo zinomuzwa wokuthi umqondo ojwayelekile "wemisebenzi yobuciko" awulingani kahle ngaphandle kwemiphakathi yanamuhla yaseNtshonalanga.[1]Umqondo wokuqala wencazelo yobuciko uhlobene kakhulu nencazelo yakudala yesiLatini, ehumusha ngokuqinile ukuthi "ikhono" noma "ubuciko",njengoba kuhlotshaniswa namagama anjengelithi "artisan".Amazwi English kulomthombo incazelo zihlanganisa mshini, yokufakelwa, artifice, ubuciko wezokwelapha,futhi ubuciko ezempi.Kodwa-ke, kukhona okunye ukusetshenziswa okuningi okuvamile kwegama,konke ngokuhlobene ne- etymology yalo.

 
Ibhodlela lekhulu lama-20, abantu baseTwa, iRwanda, imisebenzi yobuciko ingasebenza imisebenzi ebonakalayo, ngaphezu kwenani labo lokuhlobisa.

Umqondo wakamuva futhi oqondile wegama lobuciko njengesifinyezo sobuciko bokudala noma ubuciko obuhle buvele ekuqaleni kwekhulu le-17. [2]Ubuciko obuhle bubhekisa ekhonweni elisetshenziselwa ukuveza ubuciko bomculi, noma ukubandakanya imizwa yobuhle yezithameli, noma ukudonsela izethameli ekucabangeni ngomsebenzi wobuciko ocijisiswe kakhudlwana noma ocolekile.

Ngaphakathi kwalo mqondo wakamuva, igama elithi ubuciko lingabhekisa ezintweni eziningana: (i)isifundo sekhono lokudala, (ii) inqubo yokusebenzisa ikhono lokudala, (iii) umkhiqizo wekhono lokudala, noma (iv) isipiliyoni sezithameli ngekhono lokudala.Ubuciko bokudala ( ubuciko njengesiyalo) iqoqo lemikhakha ekhiqiza imisebenzi yobuciko ( ubuciko njengezinto) ephoqelelwa idrayivu yomuntu (ubuciko njengomsebenzi) futhi idlulise umlayezo, imizwa, noma okufanekiselwa ngukuthi oqondayo ahumushe (art as isipiliyoni). Ubuciko yinto evuselela imicabango yomuntu, imizwa, izinkolelo, noma imibono yakhe ngezinzwa. Imisebenzi yobuciko ingenziwa ngokusobala ngale njongo noma ihunyushwe ngesisekelo sezithombe noma izinto. Kwamanye izazi ezinjengo Kant, sciences kanye nobuciko angase zihlukaniswa ngokuthatha isayensi njengoba bemelela esizindeni ulwazi kanye nobuciko njengoba bemelela esizindeni nenkululeko yokukhuluma wobuciko. [3]

Imvamisa, uma lelo khono lisetshenziswa ngendlela ejwayelekile noma ephathekayo, abantu bazoyithatha njengobuciko esikhundleni sobuciko. Ngokunjalo, uma lelo khono lisetshenziswa ngendlela yezohwebo noma yezimboni, lingathathwa njengobuciko bezohwebo esikhundleni sobuciko obuhle. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ubuciko nokuklama kwesinye isikhathi kubhekwa njengobuciko obusetshenzisiwe . Abanye abalandeli bezobuciko bathi umehluko phakathi kobuciko obuhle nobuciko obusetshenzisiwe buhlobene kakhulu nezahlulelo zenani ezenziwe ngobuciko kunanoma yimuphi umehluko ocacile wokuchazwa. [4] Kodwa-ke, ngisho nobuciko obuhle buvame ukuba nezinhloso ezingaphezu kokuqamba okumsulwa nokuziveza. Inhloso yemisebenzi yobuciko kungaba ukuxoxa ngemibono, njengobuciko obuphathelene nezepolitiki, ngokomoya, noma nefilosofi; ukwakha umuzwa wobuhle (bheka ubuhle ); ukuhlola ubunjalo bokubona; ngenjabulo; noma ukwenza imizwa enamandla. Inhloso futhi ingahle ibonakale ingekho.

Ubuciko bungabonakala ngokuya nge-mimesis (ukumelwa kwayo kweqiniso), ukulandisa (ukuxoxa izindaba), ukukhuluma, ukuxhumana kwemizwa, noma ezinye izimfanelo. Ngesikhathi sobuRoma, ubuciko babonwa "njengobungcweti obukhethekile bengqondo yomuntu obabekwa enkolweni nakwezesayensi".

UmlandoEdit

 

 
UVenus waseWillendorf, cishe 24,000-22,000 I-BP
 
Emuva kwesitsha se-oval Renaissance noma isidlo, eMetropolitan Museum of Art
  1. Elkins, James "Art History and Images That Are Not Art", The Art Bulletin, Vol. 47, No. 4 (December 1995), with previous bibliography. "Non-Western images are not well described in terms of art, and neither are medieval paintings that were made in the absence of humanist ideas of artistic value". 553
  2. The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1993, p. 120
  3. Gilbert, Kuhn pp. 287–326
  4. David Novitz, The Boundaries of Art, 1992