Jonah

umprofethi waseBhayibhelini naseQuaran

UJona noma uJonas, [lower-alpha 1] indodana ka- Amittai, ungumprofethi eBhayibhelini lesiHeberu naseQuran, ovela eGath-hepher yombuso wasenyakatho wakwa-Israyeli cishe ngekhulu lesi-8 BCE .UJona unendima eyinhloko ye Incwadi kaJona, okuyinto imininingwane ukunqikaza ekukuletheleni Nkulunkulu ukwahlulela ka- emzini iNineve, bese kwakhe okwalandela, siqala begrudged, ukubuya mission saphezulu ngemva kokuba yagwinywa isilwane esikhulu sasolwandle.

Jonah
[[File:Jonah_and_the_Whale,_Folio_from_a_Jami_al-Tavarikh_(Compendium_of_Chronicles)|frameless|alt=]]

Yize isidalwa esigwinye uJona sivame ukuvezwa kwezobuciko namasiko njengomkhomo, umbhalo wesiHeberu empeleni usebenzisa ibinzana elithi dag gadol, elisho ukuthi "inhlanzi enkulu".Ngekhulu leshumi nesikhombisa kanye nasekuqaleni kwekhulu leshumi nesishiyagalombili, izinhlobo zezinhlanzi ezagwinya uJona kwakuyindaba yokuqagela kososayensi bemvelo, abahumusha le ndaba njengendaba yesigameko esingokomlando.Ezinye izazi zesimanje zomlando zithi kunokufana phakathi kukaJona nezinye izinganekwane, ikakhulukazi uGilgamesh neqhawe lesiGreki uJason .

Incwadi kaJonaEdit

 
UJona noMkhomo (1621) nguPieter Lastman

UJona ungumlingiswa osemqoka eNcwadini kaJona, lapho uNkulunkulu emyala khona ukuba aye edolobheni laseNineve ukuyoprofetha ngalo "ngoba ububi babo obukhulu benyukele phambi kwami," kodwa uJona kunalokho uzama ukubalekela " khona iNkosi "ngokuya Jaffa (ngezinye izikhathi elihunyushwe ngokuthi eJopha noma Joppe), lishone bahamba ngomkhumbi baya yaseTharishishi.Kuqubuka isivunguvungu esikhulu futhi amatilosi, abona ukuthi akusona isiphepho esijwayelekile, enza inkatho athole ukuthi uJona kufanele asolwe.UJona uyakuvuma lokhu futhi uthi uma ephonswa olwandle, isiphepho sizonqamuka.Amatilosi ayenqaba ukwenza lokhu futhi aqhubeka nokugwedla, kodwa yonke imizamo yabo iyahluleka futhi ekugcineni baphonsa uJona olwandle.Ngenxa yalokhu, isiphepho siyadamba futhi amatilosi abe esenikela imihlatshelo kuNkulunkulu.UJona usindiswa ngokuyisimangaliso ngokugwinywa inhlanzi enkulu, ahlala esiswini sayo izinsuku ezintathu nobusuku obuthathu.Ngenkathi esenhlanzini enkulu, uJona uthandaza kuNkulunkulu ekuhluphekeni kwakhe futhi uzibophezele ekunikezeni ukubonga nasekukhokheni lokho athembise ngakho.UNkulunkulu ube eseyala inhlanzi ukuba ihlanze uJona.

 
UJona Ushumayeza AbaseNineve (1866) nguGustave Doré

UNkulunkulu uphinde wayala uJona ukuthi aye eNineve futhi aprofethe kubantu bakhona.Ngalesi sikhathi uyahamba angene emzini, ememeza, "Ezinsukwini ezingamashumi amane iNineve lizobhujiswa."Ngemuva kokuba uJona edabule iNineve, abantu baseNineve baqala ukukholelwa ezwini lakhe futhi bamemezela ukuzila ukudla.Inkosi yaseNineve yembatha indwangu yamasaka futhi ihlala emlotheni, yenza isimemezelo esinquma ukuzila ukudla, ukugqoka izindwangu zamasaka, umkhuleko nokuphenduka.UNkulunkulu ubona izinhliziyo zabo eziphendukayo futhi uyawusindisa umuzi ngaleso sikhathi.Umuzi wonke uthotshisiwe futhi uphukile nabantu (ngisho nezilwane) bembethe indwangu yamasaka nomlotha.

Engakuthokozisi lokhu, uJona ubhekisa ekubalekeleni kwakhe phambilini eTharishishi ngenkathi egcizelela ukuthi, njengoba uNkulunkulu enesihe, bekungenakugwemeka ukuthi uNkulunkulu uzophenduka ezinhlekeleleni ezisongelwayo.Ube eseshiya umuzi azenzele indawo yokukhosela, elinde ukubona ukuthi umuzi uzobhujiswa noma cha.UNkulunkulu ubangela ukuthi isitshalo (ngesiHeberu i- kikayon ) sikhule phezu kwesikhoselo sikaJona ukuze simnikeze umthunzi ovela elangeni.Kamuva, uNkulunkulu ubangela isibungu ukuba silume impande yesitshalo bese siyabuna.UJona, manje esechayeke emandleni agcwele elangeni, uyaquleka futhi unxusa uNkulunkulu ukuthi ambulale.

Imibono yenkoloEdit

EbuJudeniEdit

 
Umfanekiso kaJona egwinywa yizinhlanzi ezivela e- Kennicott Bible, ifolio 305r (1476), eBodleian Library, e-Oxford.

Incwadi kaJona (Yonah יונה) ingomunye wabaprofethi abancane abayishumi nambili abafakwe kwiTanakh.Ngokwesiko elilodwa, uJona wayengumfana owavuswa ngu- Eliya umprofethi ku-1 AmaKhosi.Olunye usiko luthi wayeyindodana yowesifazane waseShunemi owavuswa ngu- Elisha ku-2 AmaKhosi nokuthi ubizwa ngokuthi "indodana ka- Amithayi " ( Iqiniso ) ngenxa ukuqaphela kukanina ukuthi u-Elisha ungumprofethi ku-2 AmaKhosi.I-Book of kukaJona ufunde njalo ngonyaka, ngesiHebheru zalo zokuqala futhi yaphelela, ku Yom Kippur - noSuku Lokubuyisana, njengoba Haftarah ngesikhathi ntambama mincha umthandazo.Ngokusho Rabi-Eliyezeri, izinhlanzi ukuthi uJona kugwinywe sidalwe zangenkathi primordial [36] kanye nengaphakathi lomlomo yayo sasifana esinagogeni ; [36] Amehlo enhlanzi ayenjengamawindi [36] neparele ngaphakathi komlomo walo linikeza ukukhanya okwengeziwe. [36]

KubuKrestuEdit

 
Ku-fresco yakhe ethi The Last Judgement, uMichelangelo uveze uKristu ngaphansi kukaJona (IONAS) ukuze afanelekele umprofethi njengomanduleli wakhe.

Encwadini kaTobitEdit

UJona kukhulunywa ngaye kabili esahlukweni seshumi nane se- deuterocanonical Book of Tobit,isiphetho saso sithola indodana kaTobit, uTobias, ethokoza ngezindaba zokubhujiswa kweNineve nguNebukadinesari no- Ahashiveroshi ngokugcwaliseka okusobala kwesiprofetho sikaJona ngokumelene nenhlokodolobha yase-Asiriya.

ETestamenteni ElishaEdit

ETestamenteni Elisha, kukhulunywa ngoJona kuMathewu nakuLuka.KwiVangeli likaMathewu, uJesu ubhekisa kuJona lapho ecelwa isibonakaliso ngabanye bababhali nabaFarisi.UJesu uthi isibonakaliso sizoba yisibonakaliso sikaJona : Ukubuyiselwa kukaJona emva kwezinsuku ezintathu ngaphakathi kwenhlanzi enkulu kufanekisela ukuvuka Kwakhe uqobo .

Imibono yangemva kweBhayibheliEdit

 
Isithonjana sase-Russian Orthodox sikaJona, sekhulu le-16 ( Iconostasis yesigodlo saseKizhi, eKarelia, eRussia)

Izazi zemfundiso yenkolo ezingamaProthestani Christian baye ngokwesiko ngokuhunyushwa uJona njengomprofethi uhlobo ukuze uJesu Kristu.UJona lapho egwinywe yinhlanzi enkulu wayebhekwa njengesifanekiselo sokubethelwa kukaJesu kanti uJona wavela enhlanzini ngemuva kwezinsuku ezintathu kwabonwa njengokufana kukaJesu ephuma ethuneni ngemuva kwezinsuku ezintathu.UJerome oNgcwele ulinganisa uJona nohlangothi lukaJesu lokushisekela ubuzwe futhi uthethelela izenzo zikaJona ngokuthi "uJona usebenza kanjalo njengomuntu othanda izwe, hhayi kangangoba uzonda abaseNineve, njengoba engafuni ukubhubhisa ezakhe abantu. "

E-IslamEdit

 
UJona nenhlanzi enkulu eJami 'al-tawarikh (c. 1400), eMetropolitan Museum of Art

QuranEdit

Jona ( Isi-Arabhu: يُونُس‎ ) isihloko sesahluko seshumi seQuran.UYūnus ngokwesiko ubukwa njengobaluleke kakhulu kumaSulumane njengomprofethi owayethembekile kuNkulunkulu futhi ethula imiyalezo yakhe.UJona ungukuphela komuntu wabaProfethi Abayishumi Nambili Abancane bamaJuda ozoqanjwa eQuran . [1] Ngo Quran 21:87 kanye 68:48, uJona libizwa Dhul-Nun (Isi-Arabhu: ذُو ٱلنُّوْن‎  ; okusho ukuthi "Lowo weNhlanzi"). [72] Ku-4: 163 naku-6: 86, ubizwa ngokuthi "umphostoli ka-Allah". ISurah 37: 139-148 ixoxa futhi indaba ephelele kaJona:

I-Quran ayikaze ikhulume ngoyise kaJona, kodwa isiko lamaSulumane lifundisa ukuthi uJona wayevela esizweni sakwaBenjamini nokuthi ubaba wakhe kwakungu- Amittai . [1]

AmaHadithsEdit

 
UJona uzama ukufihla ubunqunu bakhe phakathi kwezihlahla; UJeremiya ehlane (phezulu kwesobunxele); U-Uzeyr wavuswa ngemuva kokubhujiswa kweJerusalema. Ottoman Turkish miniature, ngekhulu le-16. [2]

UJona uyakhulunywa futhi ngezehlakalo ezimbalwa ngesikhathi sikaMuhammad . AmaKuraysh athumele inceku yabo, u- Addas, ukuthi bayomsebenzela amagilebhisi ukuze baziphilise. [3] UMuhammad wabuza i-Addas ukuthi uvelaphi futhi inceku yaphendula iNineve. "Umuzi kaJona olungile, ndodana ka-Amithayi!" Kubabaza uMuhammad.U-Addas washaqeka ngoba wayazi ukuthi ama-Arabs angamaqaba ayengenalwazi ngomprofethi uJona. [3] Wabe esebuza ukuthi uMuhammad wazi kanjani ngale ndoda. "Singabazalwane," kuphendula uMuhammad."UJona wayengumProfethi kaNkulunkulu futhi nami, ngingumProfethi kaNkulunkulu."U-Addas wamukela ubuSulumane ngokushesha waqabula izandla nezinyawo zikaMuhammad. [3]

Izakhi zeParodicEdit

 
Ukubuyiselwa kwesimanje kwesango le-Adad eNineve ngesithombe esathathwa ngaphambi kokubhujiswa ngokuphelele kwesango yi- ISIL ngo-Ephreli 201.Incwadi kaJona yenza ihaba ngosayizi weNineve ngaphezu kwalokho elaliyikho ngokomlando.

InhlanziEdit

UkuhumushaEdit

 
Umdwebo kaJona kanye "nenhlanzi enkulu" emnyango ongaseningizimu weGothic -era Dom St. Peter, eWorms, eJalimane

Ukuqagela kwesayensiEdit

 
Isithombe sika- whale shark, uhlobo olukhulu kakhulu lwezinhlanzi olwaziwayo
 
Isithombe se- sperm whale, isilwane esidla amazinyo esikhulu kunazo zonke futhi enye yemikhomo emikhulu ekhona njengamanje.

Ukuxhumeka okuphakanyisiwe kuzinganekwaneEdit

 
UJona ugwinywa yisilo esikhulu samazinyo esikhulu. Inhlokodolobha ebunjiwe evela esigungwini se-abbey-church eMozac, eFrance, ngekhulu le-12.

I-Epic kaGilgameshEdit

UJoseph Campbell uphakamisa ukuthi indaba kaJona ifana nesigcawu esivela ku- Epic of Gilgamesh, lapho uGilgamesh athola khona isitshalo kusuka phansi kolwandle.Encwadini kaJona, isibungu (ngesiHeberu tola'ath, "impethu") siluma impande yesitshalo esinikeza umthunzi ibangele ukuthi ibune; kanti ku- Epic of Gilgamesh, uGilgamesh ubophela amatshe ezinyaweni zakhe futhi akhiphe isitshalo sakhe phansi olwandle.Uma esebuyela ogwini, isitshalo esivuselela amandla sidliwa yinyoka.

IzinkombaEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Encyclopedia of Islam, Yunus, pg. 348
  2. The Miniatures of the Zubdat Al- Tawarikh. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Summarized from The Life of the Prophet by Ibn Hisham Volume 1 pp. 419–421