Umchazandalo

inzululwazi ecwaninga utho nempekumpeku

Umchazandalo uyinzululwazi yemvelo ecwaninga utho, [lower-alpha 1] izakhi zalo eziyisisekelo, umdiki walo nokucondoza kwalo emkhathini nasesikhathini, kanye nokuhlobana kwempekumpeku nesiphoqi . Umchazandalo ongesinye sezifundo zenzululwazi eziyisiseko, nesimpokompelo yaso eyinhloko kuwukuqonda ukuthi umkhathilibe ucondoza kanjani. Usonzululwazi ongungoti emkhakheni womchazandalo ubizwa ngokuthi umfundindalo.

rainbow
laser
balloons
lighting
universe
spinning top
atomic bomb
orbitals
car crash
izibonelo ezihlukene zesimongotho

Umchazandalo ungesinye sezifundo ezindala kakhulu, futhi, uma sihlangene nomchazamkhathi, cishe kuba esidala ukwedlula zonke. Phezu kweminyaka eyizinkulungwane ezimbili ezidlule, umchazandalo, umchazatho, umchazampilo, kanye namanye amagatsha womchazazibalo zaziyingxenye yenjulalwazi yemvelo, kodwa ngesikhathi seNguquko yezenzululwazi ekhulwini le-17 lezinzululwazi zafufusa njengocwaningo oluyingqayizivele oluzimele ngokwalo. Umchazandalo ucobelelana nezifundo eziningi, ezifana nomchazandalo wempilo (biophysics) kanye nomchazatho womngako (quantum chemistry), futhi imikhawulo yomchazandalo echasisiwe yaqondakala. Amasu amasha kumchazandalo imvama achaza izindlela eziyisiseko ezifundwa ezinye izinzululwazi futhi asikisela izindlela ezintsha zocwaningo kuzo nakwezinye izifundo ezifana nomchazazibalo nenjulalwazi.

Izintuthukiso kumchazandalo imvama zivulela Izintuthukiso kwezobuchwepheshe ezintsha. Ngokwesibonelo, Izintuthukiso ekuqondeni inzubawonga, umchazandalo wesimo esilukhumanqa, kanye nomchazandalo wenuzi kwaholela ngokuqondile ekuthuthukisweni kwemikhiqizo emisha eyaguqula umphakathi wanamuhla, efana nomabonakude, iziCikizi, izinsiza zasendlini, kanye nezikhali zenuzi; Izintuthukiso kwezomchadamezo (thermodynamics) zaholela ekuthuthukisweni kwezezimboni; futhi Izintuthukiso kwezezinguxa kwafaka ugqozi ekuthuthukisweni koqaqulo (calculus).

uMlando hlela

Igama elithi "umchazandalo" liyinhlanganisela yamabizo amabili, isenzo esisho 'ukuchaza' + nebizo elithi 'indalo'.

uMchazamkhathi wasendulo hlela

 
uMchazamkhathi waseGibhithe uyabonakala kumphezulu womchazamkhathi osethuneni lika-Senemut, langenkathi yosendo lweshumi nesiphohlongo

Umchazamkhathi ungenye yezinzululwazi zemvelo ezindala. Imiphakathi yasendulo eminyakeni eyizi-3000 BCE efana neyabase-Sumeriya, iGibhithe lasendulo, kanye nemiphakathi yasesiGodini se-indus, yayinolwazi kanye nokulumuka oluyisiseko lomdiki welanga, inyanga nezinkanyezi. Izinkanyezi nemizulane, okwaku nenkolelo yokuthi zimelela izinyanya, zazivame ukukhulekelwa. Kuyilapho izincazelo zalezimiso eziqaphelwayo zezinkanyezi zazingahambisani nenzululwazi futhi ziswele ubufakazi, lezingqaphelo zakuqala zavela isisekelo zomchazamkhathi wakamuva, njengoba izinkanyezi kwatolwa ukuthi zizungeza esibhakabhakeni.

Indabuko yomchazamkhathi wasentshona itholakala eMesophothamiya, futhi imizamo yasentshona yenzululwazi enembayo itholakala kumchazamkhathi waseBhabhiloni.[2] Umchazamkhathi waseGibhithe washiya izingqophamlando esiveza ulwazi lwemithala kanye nomdiki wezindikimba zasezilwini,[3] kuyilapho usozinkondlo waseGrisi uHoma wabhala ngezinto zasemkhathini ezihlukile kwinkondlo ebizwa [Iliad nethi Odyssey; kamuva ongaqayinga bamaGriki bafaka amagama, okuyiwona asasetshenziswa ngolimi lwesingisi, azo yonke imithala ebonakala ngenhla nenkabazwe.[4]

INjulalwazi yemvelo hlela

INjulalwazi yemvelo indabuko yayo isezweni laseGrisi ngesikhathi sasendulo (650 BCE – 480 BCE), lapho izingcithabuchopho zangaphambi kuka-Sokrati ezifana noThalesi zaqantuza izincazelo ezingezona ezemvelo ngesimongotho semvelo futhi zamemezela ukuthi zonke izehlakalo zazisisusa esingokwemvelo. Zaphakamisa amasu aqinisekiswa ngokuhluzwa nangokuqapha, futhi izihlawumbiselo zabo eziningi zaba yiqiniso ngokomgcanao; ngokwesibonelo, ubuchwe batholwa njengonembile emacishelweni eminyaka eyizi-2000 ngemuva kokuphakanyiswa ngu-Lesiphasi nomfundi wakhe uDemokritasi.

  1. (Feynman, Leighton & Sands 1963, p. I-2) "If, in some cataclysm, all [] scientific knowledge were to be destroyed [save] one sentence [...] what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is [...] that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another ..."
  2. (Aaboe 1991)
  3. (Clagett 1995)
  4. (Thurston 1994)


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