U-Edwin Cameron (wazalwa ngo-15 kuFebhuwari 1953 ePitoli ) wayengumahluleli (iJaji) eNkantolo yoMthethosisekelo waseNingizimu Afrika . [1] Waziwa kakhulu ngezimalungelo abantu abane-HIV/ AIDS kanye nokuba yisishoshovu maqondana namalungelo alabo abathandana ngobulili obufanayo (gay rights) wanconywa nguNelson Mandela ngokuthi "njengomunye wamaqhawe amasha" aseNingizimu Afrika.[2]

Isiqalo sempilo yakheUkuhlela

UCameron wazalelwa ePitoli. Uyise waboshelwa ukweba izimoto kanti unina wayengenazo izindlela zokumondla. Ngakho-ke waphila isikhathi sakhe esiningi ebuntwaneni ekhaya lezintandane eQueenstown. Udadewabo omdala wabulawa lapho uCameron eneminyaka eyisishiyagalolunye.

UCameron wazuza umfundaze wokuya ePretoria Boys 'High School, ukungesinye sezikole ezihamba phambili ezweni laseNingizimu Afrika, futhi waba ngumfundi ophumelela ngamalengiso nokhaliphile esikoleni". Ngemuva kwalokho waya eStellenbosch University, lapho afunda khona isiLatini kanye nama-classics. Lapha wayehlala eWilgenhof Mens Residence. Ngemuva kwalokhu waya e-Oxford University njengemfundi we-Rhodes Scholar. [3] Lapho, washintshela ukufundela umthetho futhi wathola isiqu se-i-BA kwi-Jurisprudence kanye neBachelor of Civil Law, wawina iVinerian Scholarship. [4] Ngesikhathi ebuyela eNingizimu Afrika waphothula i-LLB e- University of South Africa futhi waba ngumfundi ophezulu kwiziqu zomthetho.

Umsebenzi wokuqala kaCameron wahlanganisa ukusebenza eyunivesithi i-academia kanye nokusebenza ngezomthetho. [5] Ngo-1982, ngenkathi esebenza njengomfundisi wezinga eliphezulu e-University of Witwatersrand, wabhala ukugxeka okukhulu kweJaji eliKhulu u-LC Steyn, owayeyintandokazi embusweni wobandlululo. [6] Futhi, ngo-1987, uCameron waveza ukuthi amajaji amathathu aphezulu aseNingizimu Afrika, kubandakanya nalowo owayeyiJaji eliphezulu, uPierre Rabie, kufanele bashiye ezikhundleni ukuze kugcineke isithunzi sezinkantolo zomthetho. [7] UCameron wasebenza eJohannesburg Bar ukusuka ngonyaka ka-1983 ukuya ku-1994. Ukusukela ngo-1986 ubengummeli wamalungelo abantu eWits Centre for Applied Legal Studies, lapho ngo-1989 wanikezwa isikhundla sokuba nguprofesa kwezomthetho. [1] Ukusebenza kukaCameron kwezomthetho kwakubandakanya umthetho wezabasebenzi nomthetho wezokuqashwa; ukuvikela amalunga abalweli be-African National Congress ababebhekene namacala lokuvukela umbuso; kanye nokuvikela labo ababangafuni ukungenela ubusosha bombuso wobandlululo ngenxa yonembeza lwabo noma izinkolo zabo ababaziwa njengama-conscientious and religious objectors) kanti futhi wayevikela namalungelo okuvikeleka kwezomhlaba kanye nalabo ababesuswa ezindaweni zabo ngendluzula ngenxa yenqubo yombuso wobandlululo, ukuvikela amalungelo abathandana ngezobulili obufanayo bama-gay nama-lesbian. Ngo-1992 waba umbhali ngokubambisana (noTony Honoré, omunye wabaqeqeshi bakhe e-Oxford) bebhala nge-Honoré's South African Law of Trusts. [8] UCameron wanikezwa isikhundla sokuba yigqwetha eliphezulu i-silk ngonyaka ka-1994.

Umsebenzi wokwahlulela (wokuba yijaji)Ukuhlela

 
IWitwatersrand Local Division (manje eyiNkantolo ePhezulu yeNingizimu Kapa ) eGoli

Inkantolo EphakemeUkuhlela

Ngo-Okthoba 1994, uMongameli uNelson Mandela waqoka uCameron njengejaji lebambela leNkantolo ePhakeme ukuba ngusihlalo wekhomishini ephenya ngokuthengiswa kwezikhali okungekho emthethweni ngabe-Armscor, eyayisebenza njengabathengisi be-SANDF, ithengisela iYemen . Umbiko kaCameron wachazwa njengokugxeka okukhulu ngokuziphatha kwe-Armscor, kodwa lokhu akuvelanga kakhulu ngoba kwabuye kwavela yihlazo lombuso waseNingizimu Afrika wokuthenga izikhali ngokungekho emthethweni emthethweni. [9]

UCameron waqokwa unomphela kwiWitwatersrand Local Division ngo-1995. Isahlulelo sakhe esaziwa kakhulu kulomkhakha yileso sika-Holomisa v Argus Newspaper Ltd, [10] lapho uBantu Holomisa waletha icala lokwehliswa isithundzi okwaziwa njenge-defamation lapho ayemangelele khona i-<i id="mwZg">The Star</i> ngokumbhaceka ngodaba lokuthi nguye owayevumele ababulali bama-hit squad be- Azanian Liberation Army njengababulali bama-"hit squad" ababehlose "ukubulala abelungu". Isinqumo sikaCameron sachazwa "njengesijule kakhulu" soMthethosisekelo kwezezimpikiswano zangasese kanye nokuvikelwa kwenkulumo ngokukhululeka. [11] Abanye, ngisho noma babevumelana nesinqumo sakhe sobehluleli, ukuthi sasibonisa ukuhlukana nenqubo yesikhathi sobandlululo, kwakumele isinqumo sakhe, ukuba siqhubekele phambili ukuvikela abalobi bezintatheli zezindaba. [12] Isikhundla sikaCameron saqinisekiswa kakhulu, ngamacala alandelayo, yiNkantolo Ephakeme yama-Aphili. [13]

Inkantolo Ephakeme Yama-aphiliUkuhlela

Ngo-1999, Cameron wanikezwa isikhundla sokuba yibambela eNkantolo yoMthethosisekelo, kanti kulesi sikhathi wakhipha izehlulelo ezibaluleke kakhulu kwicala le- Pharmaceutical Manufacturers vs Grootboom futhi wabhala nesahlulelo kwezecala lomthethosivivinywa wezotshwala maqondana namandla omthetho wesifundazwe[14] - kwakungokokuqala, ukuthi kube necala elishajiswe eNkantolo yomthetho sisekelo lihanjiswa nguMongameli waseNingizimu Afrika ngaphansi kwesigaba 79 soMthethosisekelo . [15] I-Judicial Service Commission yayincome ukuthi uCameron aqokwe unomphela, kepha uSandile Ngcobo waqokwa esikhundleni sakhe ngenxa yokuncenga kukaThabo Mbeki, owabe eyiPhini likaMongameli, owabona ukuthi kungcono kulesi sikhundla kuqokwe umuntu omnyama. [16] [17] UCameron wavumelana nalesi sinqumo wathi "akangabazi" ukuthi lesi kwakuyisinqumo esifanele.

UCameron waqokelwa esikhundleni seNkantolo Ephakeme yama-Aphili (ngasikhathi sinye noMahomed Navsa noRobert Nugent), asebenza kuso iminyaka eyisishiyagalombili. Lapho, wabhala izinqumo ezihola phambili zezimbangela kwezomthetho okwaziwa nge-legal causation, [18] ubufakazi benzwabethi, [19] izinkontraki zabantu [20] necala lokwedelela inkantolo. [21] Kwi-Minister of Finance v Gore, uCameron wabhala ngokuhlanganyela isinqumo noFritz Brand sokuthi umbuso ubonwe icala lobudengu okwaziwa njenge-okwaziwa ngele-pure economic loss ngokubangela ukulahlekelwa kwezomnotho ngenxya yenkwabaniso okubizwa nge-fraud. [22]

Inkantolo yoMthethosisekeloUkuhlela

Ngomhla ka 31 Disemba 2008 uMongameli uKgalema Motlanthe waqoka uCameron eNkantolo yoMthethosisekelo, ukuqala ukusebenza khona ukusukela ngomhla ka 1 Januwari 2009. Uthathwa njengelungu elibalulekile lomqondo obonelela phambili okwaziwa njenge-progressive lophiko lweNkantolo. Uchazwe njengomuntu "osezingeni eliphezulu kakhulu kwezomthetho", [23] "onomqondo okhaliphe kakhulu kwezomthetho kanti futhi "osezingeni lakhe yedwa" [16] kwisizukulwane "samajaji angozakwabo". [24]

 
Igumbi lenkantolo yoMthethosisekelo yeNingizimu Afrika

Isinqumo sikaCameron seGlenister v President, asibhala ngokubambisana kuso nePhini u-Deputy Chief Justice, uDikgang Moseneke, lesi sinqumo sasusa izichibiyelo zomthetho wezobushushisi bukazwelonke i-National Prosecuting Act kanye nomthetho wezamaphoyisa i-South African Police Service Act ngenxa yokuthi zazihlulekile ukudala uphiko oluzimele lokulwa nenkohlakalo (corruption) "oluzimele ngokwanele". [25] Lokhu kwanconywa njengesinqumo "esihlabahlosile nesijulile" [26] kanye nesinqumo "esiqhakazile" [27] ngabaphawuli bezomthetho futhi kwakusho ukuthi iNingizimu Afrika kumele ibe ne-ejensi ezimele yokulwa nenkohlakalo kwezezimali ngisho noma abenhlangano ye-ANC babethathe isinqumo sokuhlakaza ama- Scorpions .

Okunye futhi okwaziwa kakhulu ngezinqumo zezahlulelo zikaCameron okuqondene nomthetho wokuhlambalaza okwaziwa njenge-defamation kanye nenkulumo ngokukhululeka okwaziwa njenge-free speech:

  • Kwicla le-Citizen v McBride, isahlulelo seningi sikaCameron sanweba ubukhulu bokuvikela ukuphawula ngokufanele futhi nokukhipha ecaleni <i id="mwxg">i-Citizen</i> maqondana noRobert McBride ngokumbiza ngokuthi "ngumbulali" ongafanele isikhundla kuhulumeni. [28]
  • Isinqumo odabeni luka-Le Roux v Dey, esanikezwa ngonyaka ka-2012, esasithinta abafana besikole abathathu ebabethathe isithombe sobuso bePhini likathishanhloko wazo basifaka emzimbeni wenye indoda eyayinqunu ishaya indlwabe eduzane nomunye. Isinqumo senkantolo enkulu yoMthethosisekelo sathi lesi sithombe sasithunaza isithunzi nokwethuka iphini likathishanhloko.[29] UCameron, nokho, esahlulelweni esenziwe ngokubambisana noJustice Froneman, sasiphikisana nalesi sinqumo, sathi ayikho indlela yokwenza lesi sinqumo sisebenze ngokuthi, umuntu ungumuntu othandana nowobulili obufana nobakhe okusho ukuthi uyi-gay. Abanye abaphawuli basemukela lesi isinqumo sinqumo.[30] Kodwa-ke, abanye basigxeka isinqumo sikaCameron bathi sonomqondo-mbili "ophikisana ngokwaso" (schizophrenic) ngokuthi lesi sithombe silimaze nokuthunaza kabi isithunzi sommangaleli ngokuthi isithombe siphakamise ukuthi ubonise ukuziphatha kabi kwezocansi. [31]
  • Kudaba lwe-Democratic Alliance v African National Congress, isinqumo esanikezwa ngonyaka ka-2015, seningi sikaCameron, ebambisene noJustices Froneman noKhampepe, sachitha isimangalo se-ANC maqondana neqembu eliphikisayo iDemocratic Alliance ngokuthumela umbiko ngokusho ngokuthumela nge-SMS eningini ukuthi umbiko woMvikeli waBantu uThuli Madonsela ' umbiko owawukhombisa ukuthi uMongameli uZuma “weba” kanjani imali yabakhokhi bentela ukwakha ikhaya lakhe eNkandla. [32] Isinqumo senkantolo "sadunyiswa kakhulu" nokubonwa njengokunqoba kwenkululeko yokuveza imibono ngesikhathi semikhankaso yokhetho", [33] yize abanye bebecabanga ukuthi lesi sinqumo sinobungozi bokudida imiqondo. [34]

UCameron uthathe umhlalaphansi ngomhla ka-20 Agasti 2019, okuwunyaka wama-25 selokhu aqokwa ukuba sesikhundleni sobjaji. [35] [36]

Ukuba yisishoshovuUkuhlela

Amalungelo abathandana ngokobulili obufanayoUkuhlela

 
UCameron embonisweni wokuqala wokuziqhenya ngenqubo yokuthandana ngokobulili obofanayo eNingizimu Afrika

UCameron ubelokhu engumuntu wenqubo yokuthandana ngokobulili obufanayo futhi lokhu ekuveza obala engakufihlile ukusukela ekuqaleni kweminyaka yama-1980.[37] Ngemuva kwalokho wangamela ukubhalwa koMthethosisekelo waseNingizimu Afrika owawubonelela amalungelo abantu abathandana ngokobulili obufanayo futhi waba nesandla ekuqikeleleni ukuqedwa kobandlululo ngenxa yenqubo yezokuthandana ngokobulili obufanayo ngokocansi.[1] Ungomunye wabantu abangu 29 abasayinela imigomo ye-Yogyakarta Principles. [38] Ubuye futhi waba yilungu labasunguli be-Society for Homesexuality on Campus, inhlangano yabafundi e-University of the Witwatersrand, kamuva eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Activate Wits.[39]

Ngo-1995 kwenziwa ushicilelo lwe-Defiant Desire: Gay and Lesbian Lives in South Africa, "okwakuwumgubho wezimpilo zamadoda nabesifazana abathandana ngokobulili obofanayo eNingizimu Afrika" uCameron kulokhu wahlanganyela noMark Gevisser kushicilelo.[40]

I-HIV / AIDSUkuhlela

Ukusukela ngonyaka ka 1988, uCameron weluleka abenyunyane ye-National Union of Mine Workers nge-HIV/AIDS kanye nokulekelela ukubhala kanye nokuxoxisana nabemboni ngokwenza isivumelwano esijulile maqondana ne-AIDS kanye nabe-Chamber of Mines. Ngesikhathi esasebenza e-Centre for Applied Legal Studies, wabhala i-Charter of Rights on Ai and HIV, kanti futhi ngokusebenzisana nabanye wasungula i-AIDS Consortium (okuyinhlangano ye-affiliate non-governmental organisations working on AIDS), kanti futhi waba ngusihlalo wayo eminyakeni yokuqala emithathu, wasungula nenhlangano ye-AIDS Law Project.

UCameron ngokwakhe wangenwa yi-HIV ngeminyaka yoma 1980, futhi wagula kakhulu eguliswa yi-AIDS ngesikhathi esebenze njengejaji.[41] Umholo wakhe ophezulu wenza ukuthi akwazi ukuthola imithi yama-anti-retroviral, eyasindisa impilo yakhe. UCameron wabona ukuthi ukwaze ukusindisa impilo yakhe ngoba enemali yokwazi ukuthenga imithi, lokhu kwameza ukuthi abe yisikhuthali kakhulu kumkhankaso we-HIV/AIDS eNingizimu Afrika entsha yangemuva kombuso wobandlululo, lapha agqugquzela khona uhulumeni ukuthi ahlinzeke ngemithi yokwelapha kubo bonke abantu. Wagxeka kakhulu uMongameli uThabo Mbeki ngokuphikisa udaba lwembangela ye-AIDS. UCameron waba ngowokuqala, kanti futhi uselokhu eyedwa oyisikhulu esiphezulu esadalula kubantu ukuthi uphile ne-HIV/AIDS.[42]

Incwadi yakhe yokuqala eyawina umklomelo esihloko esithi, Witness to AIDS, imaqondana nomzabalazo wokulwa nesifo, ishicilelwe eNingizimu Afrika, e-UK nase-US, kanti itolikwe nangesiJalimane nesiShayina.[43]

ImiklomeloUkuhlela

Imiklomelo kaCameron ibandakanya umklomelo we-Nelson Mandela Award for Health and Human Rights (2000): Umklomelo we-Stellenbosh University Alumnus Award: Transnet HIV/AIDS Champion Award kanye ne-San Francisco AIDS Foundation Excellence in Leadership Award. Ngo 2008 wasebenza njengomunye wamajaji kwi-Red Ribbon Award, kwi-partnership ye-UNAIDS Family. Ongomunye wabawina ngo 2009-2010 umklomelo we-Brudner Prize yase-Yale University enikezwa njalo ngonyaka kuzifundiswa eziphezulu noma izikhuthali zezinga eliphezulu, imisebenzi yabo efake kakhulu esivifaneni ekuqondisiseni ngezinto eziphathelene nama-LGBT kanye nokuthi abantu bama-LGBT bangabandlululwa.

Ngo 2002 abe-Bar of Engliand and Wales bamhlonipha ngomklomelo Special Award ngokuthela kwakhe esivivaneni ezintweni eziphathelene nenqubo yomthetho kanye namalungelo obuntu. Ongomunye wezikhulu ze-honarary fellow kwabe-Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, London nase-Keble College, Oxford, kanti futhi waba ngomunye wabafundisi bokuvakasha abaphezulu, i-visiting fellow of ALL Souls College, e-Oxford ngonyaka ka 2003-04, epphenyisisa ngezindo eziphathelene nobubhalwe lwesifo se-AIDS; ecwaninga maqondana nalabo ababephikisa ukuthi isifo se-AIDS sikhona nokuba wububhane ngalokho okubizwa ngokuthi yi-denialist stance, esasisekelwa nguMongameli waseNingizimu Afrika uMbeki. Ngo 2009, uCameron waqokwa ukuba ngu-Honarary Master of the Bench ye-Honourable Society of the Middle Temple. Unesiqu zokuhlonishwa ngobudokotela ezinhlanu.

Ukufikela kunyaka ka 2015, uCameron wabe engunobhala jikelele we-Rhodes Scholarship eNingizimu ne-Afrika kanti futhi uyi-patron ye-Oxford Univesity Commonewealth Law Journal. Phakathi kweminyaka ka 1998 no 2008, uCameron wabe engusihlalo we-Council ye-Univesity of the Witwatersrand. Ungu-patron we-Guild Cottage Children's Home, eSoweto HIV/AIDS Counselor's Association and Community AIDS Response.

Ukusukela ngo 2020, uzobe enguShansela we-Stellenbosch University.

AbezindabaUkuhlela

Indima ebalulekile kaCameron empini yokulwela ukufinyelela imithi yama-antiretroviral e-Afrika nakwezinye izingxenye zaseningizimu yomhlaba ibonakala emibhalweni ye-documentary eyawina umklomelo ye-Fire in the Blood . [44]

Izincwadi ezishicilelweUkuhlela

AmareferensiUkuhlela

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Justice Edwin Cameron profile", Constitutional Court of South Africa.
  2. Mafika (2009-01-12). "Cameron in Constitutional Court" (in en-US). https://www.brandsouthafrica.com/governance/developmentnews/cameron-constitutional-court-120109. 
  3. "University of Oxford honours Justice Edwin Cameron". http://www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk/news/university-of-oxford-honours-justice-edwin-cameron. 
  4. www.lesideesnet.com, Les Idées Net -. "African Success : Biography of Edwin CAMERON". http://www.africansuccess.org/visuFiche.php?id=455&lang=en. 
  5. "JSC interview: Edwin Cameron", Constitutional Court website.
  6. Cameron, Edwin. Legal Chauvinism, Executive-Mindedness and Justice--L C Steyn's Impact on South African Law. 
  7. Rickard, Carmel. "Legal academic calls on judges to resign". http://mg.co.za/article/1987-08-07-00-legal-academic-calls-on-judges-to-resign. Retrieved 2015-07-16. 
  8. Honoré, Tony. Honoré's South African Law of Trusts. https://books.google.com/?id=eWE_AQAAIAAJ. 
  9. Brummer, Stefaans (2 June 1995). "SA's arms dealing underworld". Mail & Guardian. http://mg.co.za/article/1995-06-02-sas-arms-dealing-underworld. 
  10. Holomisa v Argus Newspapers Ltd 1996 (2) SA 588 (W).
  11. "In the year of the Constitution, SA begins moulding a Rechtstaat". Mail & Guardian. 24 December 1996. http://mg.co.za/article/1996-12-24-in-the-year-of-the-constitution-sa-begins-moulding-a-rechtstaat. 
  12. "Publish and be damned". http://mg.co.za/article/1996-04-12-serjeant-at-the-bar-publish-and-be-damned. 
  13. National Media Ltd and Others v Bogoshi (1998) ZASCA 94; 1998 (4) SA 1196 (SCA).
  14. Ex Parte President of the Republic of South Africa: In re Constitutionality of the Liquor Bill (1999) ZACC 15.
  15. Bishop, Michael. Constitutional Law of South Africa. Juta & Co Ltd. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 McGreal, Chris (2 June 1999). "Mbeki under fire for veto of judge". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/1999/jun/02/chrismcgreal. 
  17. "Zuma looks to Ngcobo as new chief justice". Mail & Guardian. 6 August 2009. http://mg.co.za/article/2009-08-06-zuma-looks-to-ngcobo-as-new-chief-justice. 
  18. S v Tembani (2006) ZASCA 123.
  19. S v Ndhlovu and Others (2002) ZASCA 70.
  20. Logbro Properties v Bedderson NO and Others (2002) ZASCA 135.
  21. Fakie NO v CCII Systems (Pty) Ltd (2006) ZASCA 52.
  22. Minister of Finance and Others v Gore NO (2006) ZASCA 98.
  23. Calland, Richard (2013). "The Zuma Years (extract)". TheConMag. http://www.theconmag.co.za/2013/09/02/a-chief-justice-who-doesnt-write-appointed-by-a-president-who-doesnt-read/. 
  24. Myburgh, James (29 August 2008). "The great Constitutional Court mystery". Politicsweb. http://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/the-great-constitutional-court-mystery. 
  25. Glenister v President of the Republic of South Africa and Others (2011) ZACC 6
  26. Boonzaier, Leo (2015-03-25). "A constitutional obligation to disclose political party funding?". African Legal Centre. http://africanlegalcentre.org/leo-boonzaier-a-constitutional-obligation-to-disclose-political-party-funding-my-vote-counts-v-speaker-of-the-national-assembly-and-others/. 
  27. De Vos, Pierre (2011-03-18). "Glenister: A monumental judgment in defence of the poor". http://constitutionallyspeaking.co.za/glenister-a-monumental-judgment-in-defence-of-the-poor/. 
  28. The Citizen 1978 (Pty) Ltd and Others v McBride (2011) ZACC 11.
  29. Le Roux and Others v Dey (2011) ZACC 4.
  30. Milo, Dario; Palmer, Greg (17 March 2011). "Analysis: Schoolboy scandals and defamation in SA. Quo vadis?". DailyMaverick. http://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2011-03-17-analysis-schoolboy-scandals-and-defamation-in-sa-quo-vadis. 
  31. MacKaiser, Eusebius (17 April 2011). "ConCourt loves gays but hates sex". Politicweb. http://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/concourt-loves-gays-but-hates-sex. 
  32. Democratic Alliance v African National Congress (2015) ZACC 1.
  33. de Vos, Pierre (21 January 2015). "The DA's SMSes: Judgment day and its likely impact". DailyMaverick. http://www.dailymaverick.co.za/opinionista/2015-01-21-the-das-smses-judgment-day-and-its-likely-impact. 
  34. Milo, Dario; Winks, Ben (23 January 2015). "SMS ruling muddies the waters". Mail & Guardian. http://mg.co.za/article/2015-01-22-sms-ruling-muddies-the-waters/. 
  35. "Justice Edwin Cameron to step down in August after 25 years as a judge". 2019-06-27. https://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/justice-edwin-cameron-to-step-down-in-august-after-25-years-as-a-judge-20190627. 
  36. Cosser, Narnia Bohler-Muller, Gary Pienaar and Michael. "OP-ED: Edwin Cameron: From an orphanage in Queenstown to Constitution Hill". https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2019-08-22-edwin-cameron-from-an-orphanage-in-queenstown-to-constitution-hill/. 
  37. Blignaut, Charl (13 October 2012). "Some of us are freer than others". http://www.citypress.co.za/features/some-of-us-are-freer-than-others-20121013/. Retrieved 30 July 2014. 
  38. Signatories to the Yogyakrta Principles, p. 35
  39. "Archived copy". http://activatewits.weebly.com/archives.html. Retrieved 9 September 2015. 
  40. Cameron, Edwin (1995). Defiant Desire: Gay and Lesbian Lives in South Africa. Routledge. https://books.google.com/?id=8RzeAAAAQBAJ&lpg=PA3&dq=cameron%20gevisser%20defiant%20desire&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  41. 46
  42. 48 49
  43. 46
  44. http://fireintheblood.com/the-contributors