Isayensi ibhizinisi elihlelekile elakha futhi lihlele ulwazi ngendlela yezincazelo ezivivinyayo nokubikezela ngomkhathi. [1] [2]

I umkhathi imelelwa tincetu amaningi disk emise yonkana isikhathi, oludlula kusuka kwesokunxele kuya kwesokudla.

Izimpande zokuqala zesayensi zingalandelelwa ngeGibhithe lasendulo naseMesopotamia cishe ngo-3500 kuya ku-3000 BCE. [3] [4] Amagalelo abo wezibalo, izinkanyezi, kanye nemithi angena futhi abumba ifilosofi yemvelo yamaGrikhi yasendulo, lapho kwenziwa khona imizamo emisiwe yokuhlinzeka ngezincazelo zezinto ezisezweni lomzimba ngenxa yezizathu zemvelo. Ngemuva kokuwa koMbuso WaseNtshonalanga WaseRoma, ulwazi ngemiqondo yamaGrikhi lomhlaba lwehla lwasentshonalanga neNtshonalanga Yurophu phakathi namakhulu okuqala (400 kuya ku-1000 CE) weNkathi Ephakathi [5] kepha lwagcinwa emhlabeni wamaSulumane ngesikhathi se- AmaSulumane Yegolide Iminyaka. [6] Ukubuyiselwa kanye nokuthathwa kwemisebenzi yamaGrikhi nemibuzo yamaSulumane iye eNtshonalanga Yurophu kusuka ngekhulu le-10 kuye kwele-13 kwavuselela " ifilosofi yemvelo ", [7] kamuva eyaguqulwa yinguquko yeSayensi eyaqala ngekhulu le-16 [8] njengento entsha imibono kanye nokutholakele okusukile emibonweni nakwisiko lamaGrikhi langaphambili . [9] [10] [11] [12] Indlela yesayensi yasheshe yabamba iqhaza elikhulu ekwakhiweni kolwazi futhi akuzange kube ngekhulu le-19 lapho izici eziningi zesayensi nezobuchwepheshe zaqala ukwakheka; [13] [14] [15] kanye nokushintshwa "kwefilosofi yemvelo" kuya kwisayensi yemvelo. [16]

Isayensi yanamuhla ngokuvamile ihlukaniswe ezintathu ezinkulu amagatsha aqukethe lo natural sciences (isib, ibhayoloji, ikhemistri, futhi amafiziki ), okuyinto cwaningo imvelo ngomqondo ebanzi; isayensi yezenhlalo (isib, ezomnotho, ezengqondo, kanye nezenhlalo ), ezifunda abantu nemiphakathi; kanye nesayensi ehlelekile (isib. logic, imathemathiki, kanye ne-isayensi yekhompyutha yemibhalo), ezifunda imiqondo engabonakali. Kukhona ukungaboni ngaso linye, [17] [18] nokho, ekutheni isayensi esemthethweni empeleni iyisayensi njengoba bengathembeli ebufakazini obunamandla . [19] Izijeziso ezisebenzisa ulwazi olukhona lwesayensi ngezinjongo ezisebenzayo, njengokuthi ubunjiniyela nangomuthi, zichazwa njengezesayensi esetshenzisiwe. [20] [21] [22] [23]

Isayensi isuselwa ocwaningweni, oluvame ukwenziwa ezikhungweni zemfundo kanye nocwaningo kanye nasezinhlanganweni zikahulumeni nasezinkampanini . Umthelela osebenzayo ocwaningweni lwesayensi uholele ekuqubukeni kwezinqubomgomo zesayensi ezifuna ukuthonya ibhizinisi lesayensi ngokubeka phambili ukuthuthukiswa kwemikhiqizo yokuthengisa, izikhali, ukunakekelwa kwempilo kanye nokuvikelwa kwemvelo.

IzinkombaUkuhlela

  1. Wilson, E.O.. Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. 
  2. "... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. It was a discovery that nature generally acts regularly enough to be described by laws and even by mathematics; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstractions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regularities and securing their law-like descriptions."— p.vii Heilbron, J.L. (editor-in-chief). The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science. 
  3. "The historian ... requires a very broad definition of "science" – one that ... will help us to understand the modern scientific enterprise. We need to be broad and inclusive, rather than narrow and exclusive ... and we should expect that the farther back we go [in time] the broader we will need to be."  p.3—Lindberg, David C. (2007). "Science before the Greeks". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 1–27. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7. 
  4. Grant, Edward (2007). "Ancient Egypt to Plato". A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century (First ed.). New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–26. ISBN 978-052-1-68957-1. 
  5. Lindberg, David C. (2007). "The revival of learning in the West". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 193–224. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7. 
  6. Lindberg, David C. (2007). "Islamic science". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 163–92. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7. 
  7. Lindberg, David C. (2007). "The recovery and assimilation of Greek and Islamic science". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (2nd ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 225–53. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7. 
  8. Principe, Lawrence M. (2011). "Introduction". Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction (First ed.). New York, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0-199-56741-6. 
  9. Lindberg, David C. (1990). "Conceptions of the Scientific Revolution from Baker to Butterfield: A preliminary sketch". Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution (First ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–26. ISBN 978-0-521-34262-9. 
  10. Lindberg, David C. (2007). "The legacy of ancient and medieval science". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (2nd ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 357–368. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7. 
  11. Del Soldato, Eva. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2016 ed.). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. 
  12. Grant, Edward (2007). "Transformation of medieval natural philosophy from the early period modern period to the end of the nineteenth century". A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century (First ed.). New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 274–322. ISBN 978-052-1-68957-1. 
  13. From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences: Writing the History of Nineteenth-Century Science. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-08928-7. 
  14. The Oxford English Dictionary dates the origin of the word "scientist" to 1834.
  15. Lightman, Bernard. "13. Science and the Public". Wrestling with Nature : From Omens to Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226317830. 
  16. Harrison, Peter. The Territories of Science and Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN 9780226184517. 
  17. Bishop, Alan (1991). "Environmental activities and mathematical culture". Mathematical Enculturation: A Cultural Perspective on Mathematics Education. Norwell, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 20–59. ISBN 978-0-792-31270-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=9AgrBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA54#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  18. Bunge, Mario. "The Scientific Approach". Philosophy of Science: Volume 1, From Problem to Theory. New York, New York: Routledge. pp. 3–50. ISBN 978-0-765-80413-6. 
  19. Fetzer, James H. (2013). "Computer reliability and public policy: Limits of knowledge of computer-based systems". Computers and Cognition: Why Minds are not Machines. Newcastle, United Kingdom: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 271–308. ISBN 978-1-443-81946-6. 
  20. Fischer, M.R. (2014). Thinking and acting scientifically: Indispensable basis of medical education. pp. Doc24. 
  21. Abraham, Reem Rachel (2004). Clinically oriented physiology teaching: strategy for developing critical-thinking skills in undergraduate medical students. pp. 102–04. 
  22. Sinclair, Marius. On the Differences between the Engineering and Scientific Methods. 
  23. "Engineering Technology :: Engineering Technology :: Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, IUPUI". 

I-GhienCongNghe.Net iyiwebhusayithi enakekela izindaba zobuchwepheshe ezidumile eVietnam

Izixhumanisi ezingaphandleUkuhlela