Maskandi

Masikandi umculo owasungulwa eNingizimu Afrika oculwa ngolimi lwesiZulu. Lona umculo odlwalwa kakhulu ngesigincgci.Lo lu hhlobo lomculo ludume futhi luthandwa kakhulu esifundazweni saKwaZulu Natali okudala lokhu ukuzinza kwesizwe samaZulu kulesi sifundazwe. Yize umculo kaMaskandi udume kakhulu esifundazweni saKwaZulu-Natali ubuye uzwakale udlala kakhulu eGoli kanye naseKapa udlalwa ngamaZulu kulezi zindawo. Yize llu hlobo lomculo selinedumela esikhathini samanje, kususkela kudala wabe uthathwa njengomculo wabelusi bezinkomo ngabantui basemadolobheni okanye emalokishini. Abantu ababenza lolu hlobo lomculo babebukelwa phansi nawo lomculo ukhuzani nguye oseyinkosi kamaskandi


Uskeqe

UkuchazwaEdit

Igama elithi Masikandi lingumfakelwa olimini lwesiZulu lisuselwa egameni lesiBhunu elithi musikant uma lihunyushelwa esiZulwini lisho umuntu ongumculi [1] [2]. Leli gama elithi uMaskandi lingasho uhlobo lomclo kanti futhi nomuntu owenza lomculu ubizwa ngoMasikandi, okusho ukuthi leli gama linemiqondo emibilili futhi lisetshenziswa ngokushintshana. UMasikandi umuntu owabe eziculela elekelelwa isigingci noma yinkostini [1]. UMasikandi futhi ungasho umculo wesintu lapho umculi wawo ethula khona imizwa yakhe futhi ezibongela noma ezihasha, noma ecula ngalokho akubona emphakathini esebenzisa isiginci noma inkostina ukukhipha imisindo [3][1].

UMculo kamasikandi kungashiwo ukuthi uwubuciko bomlomo lapho umqambi womculo usuke ethula khona imizwa yakhe, ezibongela noma ezihasha. Indlela awudlulisa ngawo lomyalezo ukuthi acule asebenzise nesigingci, okuyinto ehlukile kosonkondlo ngoba bona bayahaya abasebenzisi iziginci kanye nezinkostina. OMaskandi abaningi bacula ngezimo abahlangabezana nazo empilweni kanye nezinto abazibona nsuku zonke. Ukusebenzisa izibongo nezihasho ezingomeni zabo kwenza umculo kamasikandi uzwakalise sankondlo. Lolu hlobo lomculo lungabalulwa ngokuthi uhlobo lwenkondlo yesimanje[4][2][1].

Izinsimbi zokwenza lomculoEdit

UmlandoEdit

AmaZulu kusukela emandulo abe eyithanda ingoma futhi ekwazi ukuqamaba izingoma. Ngalezi zikhathi kwakungasethenziswa zinsimbi ukwenza umculo, kepha kwabe kusetshenziswa izigubhu, izimpomdo kanye namaphimbo nokunye okuningi. AmaZulu aqala ukubona isigingci ngonyaka ye-1880 lapho kwakufika khona amaPutukezi osebeni lwaseNatali, ukusbenzisa lezi zinsimbi zaseNtshonalanga indlela yokwenza umculo yabe isishintsha ngalesi sikhathi ngoba amaZulu azithola esesungula ezinye izinhlobo zomculo.

Kodwa ngokufunda kuyavela ukuthi waqala ukwenziwa emahostela, ezindaweni zasemaphandleni kanye nasezimayini ngiminyaka yezi-50s. Ngokubuka umlando waseNingizimu Afrika ngesikhathi sengcindezelo ama-Afrika ikakhulukazi abesilisa babephoqelekile ukushiya ezindaweni zabo baye emadolobheni ukuyofuna umsebenzi. Abaningi babeya kosebenza emafemini abanye beya ezimayini ezimba igolide namanye amaminerali, lapha abesilisa babahlaliswa ezindaweni zasemahostela nguhulumeni wangeleso sikhathi abanye behlala ezikompolo zasezimanyini [2][1].

Ezimanyini kanye nasemafemini kwabe kunezinhlanga ezahlukahlukene, phakathi kwalezi zinhlanga kwakukhona amaBhunu ayedlala umculo ngezinkostina kanye nezigingci. Lokhu kwawaheha kakhulu amaZulu kwagcina sekunomthelela omkhulu emculweni wesiZulu. NamZulu agcina eseyithathile lendlela yokudlaa umculo, nabo baqhamuka nohlobo lomculo lwabo lomculo olwagcina selubizwa ngokuthi uMaskandi [5][1][4].

Kuwo lamahostela ukuze bazijabulise babelalela umculo kamsakandi owabe uqanjwa futhi uculwa ozakwabo ababesebenza nabo futhi behlala nabo. OMasikandi abaningi babeculela ukuthokozisa abantu ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene okubalwa kuzo emahostela, emgwaqeni kanye nasezindaweni ezinye eziningi. OMaskandi ngalesi sikathi babengawuqophi umculo wabe babewudlala kulezi zindawo ezibaliwe kuphele lapho, okusho ukuthi umculo wabe wabe uphelela khona kulezi zindawo wabe ungasabalali [6].

UMaskandi wokuqala ukuqopha igama lakhe kwabe kungu John Bhengu owaduma kakhulu ngelikaPhuzushukela Bhengu, lomaskandi ungomunye womaskadi abaqala ukucula emakhoneni emigwaqo yeTheku. UJohjn Bhengu wafika eGoli ngeminyaka yezi-1950s wahlangana nomenzi womculo wombhaqanga waqopha imculo wakhe okokuqala osihloko sithi, Ilanga Libalele' [1]. Nguye owenza ukuba lolu hlobo lomculo luqgame futhi luthathwe njengolunye lohlobo lomculo waseNingizimu Afrika. Ukuqopha kwakhe izingoma zakhe futhi edlala nesigingci sakhe wazuza imakethe yamaZulu, okwenza kwabonakala ukuthi likhulu igalelo ilangadlalwa yilomculo.

1980sEdit

Omasikandi abaningi ngalesi sikhathi umculo wabo wabe uqondiswe ekulweni nohulumeni wobandululo. Ngeminyaka yezi-80s iqembu lomculo elabe lizibiza ngokuthi i-Juluka nalo labe lenza umculo kamasikandi, yize lei qembu laqala ukucula ngeminyaka ye-1970s. Leli qembu laqopha umlando ngokuthi lihlanganise umlungu kanye no-afrika ngesikhathi sobandlululo, okwadala izinkinga eziningi umculo walo wagcina usiuvaliwe ukudlalwa emsakazweni yaseNingizimu Afrika. IJuluka yabe lakhiwe nguJohnny Clegg kanye no Sipho Mchunu. Abaculi abafana noMgqashiyo Ndlovu, Mfaz'Omnyama, Thwalofu, Phuzekhemisi, Hashi Elimhlophe nabanye abaningi ababecula umasikandi ababumile ngazo lezi zikhathi. UBusi Mhlongo, Indlovukazi kaMaskandi, waba ngowokuqala wesifazane ukuba acule futhi aqophe lomculo, umculo kaBusi Mhlongo waba uhalanganisa umaskandi kanye noculo wokholo. Ihashi Elimhlophe naye wazakhela udumo oluningi ngaleminyeka, yize naye aqala ukucula ngenimnyaka yezi-1970s ngeminyaka yezi-1980s wabe eskhiphe ama-alibhamu amaningi aba yisasasa.

1990sEdit

Ngalesi sikathi isimo sabe simuncu eNingizimu Afrika njengoba kwabe sekubhekwe okhethweni lukazwelonke futhi kukhona nezimpi zezombusazwe abantu babefa ngalesi sikathi kubangwa zona ezombusazwe. Abaculi abafana noPhuzekhemisi nabanye abaningi amaculo abo abe ebehekise ekulweni nalolu dlame, beqgugquzela abantu ukuthi abashiye phansi izikhali. Iqembu lomculo elibizwa ngokuthi Izingane Zoma nalo lazenzela idumela ngalelinyaka, umculo waleli qembu wabe uqanjwa ngezehlakalo zezombuswazwe ezabe zenzeka nagalesi sikhathi, okusayindlela abasayisebenzisa namanje. Ngayo lenkathi seludlulile udlame, iNingizimu Afrika isisenkululekweni amaculo omasikandi amaningi abe esekhuluma ngayo lenkululeko. Umculo kamasikandi nawo wayidlala indima enkulu ekuletheni inkululeko eNingizimu Afrika. Abaculi abaningi umculo wabo babewudayisa kwamakhasethi nama sidi. Abanye babeqopha amavidiyo ayedlala kumabonakude amanye amavidioy adayiswe kumakhasethi evidiyo. Lokhu kutshengisa ushinthso noma impucuzeko ekudayiseni umculo.

2000sEdit

Umculo kamsakandi wabe usenedumela elikhulu ngoba amaculo amaningi abae esezwakala emskazweni amanye ayabonakala kumabonakude. Ngaso lesi sikathathi izinto okuculwa ngazo kanye nendlela okuculwa ngayo sekushintshe kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa nangesikathi lomculo usaqala. Iqembu lomculo uShwi noMuntekhala..Omasikandi abagamile ngalesi sikhathi kubala Umgqumeni ongasekho emhlabeni, Thokozani Langa, Mtshengiseni, Igcokama Elisha, Jaiva Zimnike, Amageza Amahle nabanye abaningi.Indlela yokucula loculo ayikakashinthsi kakhulu ngoba laba abacula lolu hlobo loculo basacula ngezimo zempilo, uthhando abanye bacula izihayo njengoba kwakunjalo kwasekuqaleni. Amaculo amasikandi adiyiswa ngama sidi omunye utholakala kwi-intanethi, banye omasikandi baqopha amavidiyo bawadayise kuma dividi.

Omsikandi kudala abaningi babengahamibisani nezemfashini, uma becula babevunula noma bazigqokele imiblaselo. Omsiakandi besimanje sebeyayibheka indlela ababukeka ngayo, ngoba manje iningi labo kungashiwo ukuthi bangoisweenka. Abasekho omasikandi abavunulayo uma beya kocula eziteji noma uma kunemicimbi. Lokhu kutshengisa ushintsho kule ndima yomculo, ukuthi nakhona isikhona impucuzeko .

Ukuhlanganiswa nezinye izinhlobo zomculoEdit

Umculo kamaskandi usuke wahlanganiswa nezinye izinhobo zomculo okubalwa kuzo i-Kwaito, house, hip-hop kanye nezinye izinhlobo. Iqembu lomculo weKwaito alabe laziwa ngokuthi yi-Boom Shaka elaliholwa nguLebo Mathosa lahlangana noHashi Elimhlophe ukwenza umculo ohlanganisa iKwaito kanye nomsakandi [7] . Umculi wohlobo lomculo we-hip-hop owaziwa ngokuthi u-Zuluboy esekhipha i-alibhamu yakhe yesibili esihloko esithi-Inqolobane wasebenza no-Bhekumuzi Luthulu emaculweni emaningi kule alibhamu. UZuluboy kule alibhamu wahlanganisa umculo we-hip-hop kanye nomsakndi wakhipha ingxube yomculo ayeyiqambe ngikuthi yi-skandihop [8]. Akekho omunye oseke wanza okunje emculweni waseNingizimu Afrika [9].

KwimidiyaEdit

Umculo kamaskandi uyaqhakambiswa emsakazweni kanye nakumabonakude ezinhlelweni eziningi. Kumabonakude kukhona uhelo oludlala esiteshini sakwa-SABC u-SABC 1 uhlelo olubizwa ngokuthi Ezodumo lapho kuqhakambiswa imiculo yesintu. Kulelu hlelo kuqahakambiswa nomculo kamaskandi kuvela amaculo omasikandi abahlukene abanye bazocula bukhoma estudiyo salolu hlelo. Kunohlelo oludlala esiteshini somkazakazo Ukhozi FM olubizwa ngokuthi i-Sigiya Ngengoma kulolu hlelo kudlalwa umculo kamaskandi kuphela [10]. Lapha kuqhakanjiswa umculo kamaskandi womsikandi asebengene shi kulendima nabasafufusa. UBhodloza Nzimande waba negaleleo elikhulu ekugqamiseni nasekuthuthukiseni ukudlalwa kwalomculo emsakazweni ikakhulukazi uKhozi FM , okwenza ukuba uzwiwe abalandeli abaningi kakhulu [10][11] .

IzindondoEdit

Umcimbi wezindondo zomculo waseNingizimu Afrika owaziwa ngokuthi yi-South African Music Awards (SAMA), uyazama omaiskandi ngoba abanye sebeka basizithola lezi zindondo. Uhlobo uluningi lwemiculo wesintu okubalwa nomculo kamasikandi awukutholi ukugqanyiswa njengezinye izinhlobo zomculo kulezi zindondo [7]. Yingakho kwasungulwa izindondo ezibhekiswe ngqo emculweni wesintu lezi zindondo ziqhakambisa igalelo labaculi bomculo wesintu wezinhlanga ezahlukahlukene. Umcimbi walezi zindondo ubizwa ngokuthi i-South African Traditional Music Achievment Awrds (SATMA Awards) ubanjwa minyaka yonke. Kukhona ezinye izindondo ezasungulwa zibizwa nhgokuthi amaNtshontsho kaMasikandi Awards kulelezi zindondo kuqhakambiswa futhi kugqanyiswa igalelo lomasikandi emculweni kamasikandi. Lezi zindondo zibanjwa minyaka yonke esifundazweni saKwaZulu-Natali ngoba yikuso lesi sufundazwe lapho kunabalandel abaningi bomculo kamasikandi.

Ukugqama eNingizimu AfrikaEdit

Ngenkathi kungenwa onyakeni we-2017 kwaqopheka umlando, ngoba ingoma okwangenwa ngayo kuwo lonyaka kwaba ngeyamasikandi. Ukuhlukana konyaka we-1-6 sekungena owe-1-7 kwangenwa ngengoma ethi Siyobulal' uVan Dammne eculwa nguMroza Mkhathazi. Lo nyaka (2017) abathandi bamasikandi bawafunga ngokuthi unyaka wamabhinca ngoba phela kwaba kungenwe kuwo ngengoma kamasikandi. Lokhu kudla kwaleli culo lika masikandi umhlangananiso kwalinyusa idumela lalomculo ebantwini abaningi baseNingizimu Afrika, nababengawunakile bawunaka [12].

Abaculi baMaskandi abagqamileEdit

Izinhlanganisi ezingaphandleEdit

ImithomboEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Ntombela Sipho Albert (Lwezi 2011). Amasu Asetshenziswa ngoMasikandi beseZulu Emculweni wabo (PDF). eThekwini: University of South Africa Press. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 15 Nhlolanja 2019. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (help)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Muller A Carol (2008). "Labour Migration:Maskanda". Routledge. Archived from the original on 2019-05-11. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 15 Nhlolanja 2019. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. Mseleni Khanyisile (25 Mandulo 2018). "The History of Maskandi". EGoli. Archived from the original on 2020-09-18. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 14 Nhlolanja 2019. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (help)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Afro Pop Worldwide (14 Mfumfu 2007). "What is Maskanda". EGoli. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 15 Nhlolanja 2019. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (help)
  5. Traditionsl Music South Africa (7 Nhlolanja 2013). "Traditional South African Zulu Music". Archived from the original on 2021-01-10. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 14 Nhlolanja 2019. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (help)
  6. Gumede Bongiwe (08 Ndasa 2017). "How Maskandi Continuesto Tell Our Tales". Kulandwe ngomhlaka 14 Nhlolanja 2019. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (help)[dead link]
  7. 7.0 7.1 Mojapelo Maxwell Thamagana (2008). Beyond Memory: Recording the History, Moments and Memories of South African Music. Sommerset West: African Minds. ISBN 978-1-920299-28-6.
  8. Author (19 Masingana 2009). "100% Zuluboy". EThekwini. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 22 Nhlolanja 2019. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (help)
  9. Author (24 Ntulikazi 2008). "Zuluboy is 100% real". Kulandwe ngomhlaka 22 Nhlolanja 2019. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (help)
  10. 10.0 10.1 Mzukulu kaMhlongo (27 Nhlaba 2015). "Umculo kaMaskandi uzimele enkungcwekwni ngobuciko bephimbo namazwi". KwaZulu-Natali. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 14 Njlolanja 2019. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (help)
  11. Mbhele Mbe (2 Lwezi 2018). "Tune in to the Wails of Maskandi". EGoli. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 14 Nhlolanja 2019. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (help)
  12. ANA Reporter (4 Masingana 2017). "'Van Damme' wins SABC's Song of the Year". Durban. Unknown parameter |accesdate= ignored (|access-date= suggested) (help); Check date values in: |date= (help)